UVM AND THE LOCAL/REGIONAL ECONOMY (COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT & APPLIED ECONOMICS 295)

January 13, 2003

Instructors:
Richard Schramm
CDAE Department, UVM
103A Morrill Hall
656-0292, rschramm@zoo.uvm.edu
office hours: Tues, Wed, Thurs 2:00-3:00 pm or by appointment

Nancy Brooks
Economics Department, UVM
231 Old Mill Bldg
656-0946, nbrooks@zoo.uvm.edu
office hours: Tues. 2:00-3:30, Wed. 1:30-3:00 pm

Project-related websites
1. Burlington/UVM COPC- www.uvm.edu/~copc
2. HUD Office of University Partnerships- www.oup.org
3. COPC research from around the country- www.oup.org/research/copcresearch.html
4. City of Burlington www.ci.burlington.vt.us
5. University of Vermont www.uvm.edu

Overview:
This field study course asks what are the economic impacts of UVM on the regional/local economy and how might the university change its employment and purchasing to further benefit the residents of lower income areas of Burlington. It begins with an overview of the needs and assets of the Burlington economy and then looks at the role of UVM, and its almost $300 million annual budget, in that economy. The course then looks at a variety of topics related to local economic development, and the role of local institutions in development, for the remainder of the class.

A major part of the course is the field projects carried out by students either individually or in teams. Building on the research and outreach work of students in previous classes, this semester students will study and implement ways to sustain employment and purchasing activities/partnerships and to evaluate their impacts on UVM and local residents and economy.

The UVM/Burlington Community Outreach Partnership Center (COPC) oversees the UVM Impacts Project that provides support for this class. The Impacts Project Advisory Committee of UVM, City and Community representatives will provide guidance for the class field work.

Goals:
1. Strengthen or develop student skills in (a) analysis, interviewing, surveys, and other research methods, (b) writing, presentation, website construction and other forms of communication, and (c) working independently and in teams.
2. Learn the basic theoretical concepts underlying economists understanding of local economic development.
3. Provide findings and recommendations to advisory committee of UVM/Burlington COPC UVM Impacts project.
4. Contribute to positive workforce and business development impacts on Old North End residents.
5. Contribute to the building of lasting partnerships between community members and organizations and UVM.

Course Format and Requirements:
1. The course will operate as a task force of the UVM Impacts Project, charged with the responsibility of developing and implementing strategies to sustain and evaluate the positive impacts of UVM employment and purchasing on this economy and on the residents of the Old North End of Burlington. Individuals and groups with specific knowledge related to this task will be invited to the class to share their information with task force members, and help guide student research/implementation activities.

2. Class members will each be in a small study team (2-3 members) assigned to focus on various issues.

3. Since the success of the task force depends on the contributions of all members, and each member needs to be kept abreast of the work of others, class attendance is mandatory.

4. Each class member will keep a journal recording questions, ideas, information, reflections, and other entries related to the class and the topics under study. In addition, students will write three reflection essays in their journal during the semester. The instructors will review the journal and a reflection essay on October 1, November 5 and December 3. The journal and reflection essays are required but will not be graded.

5. Student teams will prepare assignments related to the analysis of the local economy and of university impacts, and develop questions in advance of class for any guest speakers and on any readings. Since the class has a task force structure, students may also be given other individual or small group assignments based on questions raised during a particular meeting of the task force.

6. Students will make regular progress reports to the class, prepare their own written reports, and work together to prepare and present a final report to members of the UVM Impacts Project Advisory Committee.

7. Grades will be based on attendance, participation, and journals (20%), individual and group assignments (30%), and final individual or team reports (50%).

Resources:
In addition to the resources brought to the class by the instructors, students, and visiting speakers, we will draw on a series of readings and reference materials kept on reserve in Bailey-Howe Library or available on the Burlington/UVM COPC website. Some or all of the required readings will be at the reserve desk.

Outline and Assignments:

August 27:
Introduction

1. Course Purpose, Approach/Task Force Structure; Service Learning

2. Local Economic Development
Goals
Methods of Analysis:
Performance, Structure, Resource Analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT)
Sources of Information:
Cortright and Reamer, Socioeconomic Data for Understanding Your Regional Economy (one copy available for use by class members)

3. Role of Class in the UVM/Burlington COPC; Research and Outreach Results to Date COPC Proposal Summary and UVM/Regional Economy Project Description (handout and go over in class)

Assignment:
Old North End Walk
Read Mt. Auburn Associates, Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Assessing Your Local Economy (handout)
Do readings for 9/3 class
Exercise: Develop a Preliminary Plan for Analysis of Burlington Economy

September 3:
Economic Analysis, Institutional Impacts, and Local Economic Development

1. Meet in the Bailey-Howe Library Instruction Center at 5pm for discussion of socioeconomic data for local economic analysis with Scott Schaffer, Library Assistant Professor

2. Burlington Economic Analysis
Review Student Plans
3. Role of Institutions in Local Economy: Universities
University impact studies
Closer look at UVM
4. Making the Case for Local Economic Development
Michael Shuman Address to COPC Conference, Economic Engines in Action, April 12, 2002 (Video)

Readings:
Blakely, Planning Local Economic Development, Ch 1.
Shuman, Going Local, Ch. 1

Assignment:
Exercise: Complete analysis of performance, structure and resources of Burlington Economy and prepare SWOT analysis

September 10
Burlington Economy, Sustainability, and Development Strategies

1. Burlington and Sustainability
Mayor Peter Clavelle Talk (301 Williams, 3:30-4:45)

2. Meanings of Sustainability
Environmental
Institutionalization

3. Student Reports on Burlington Economy
Performance, Structure, Resources, SWOT

4. Overview of LED Strategies

5. UVM and the Burlington Economy

Assignment:
Take in community dinner, Multi-Generational Center, 241 N. Winooski Ave. 5:30, Thursday September 12

Readings:
Institutionalization:
– Lessons from COPC Program, HUD, June 2002 Ch 1, 4, 5
– Institutionalizing Community Outreach, Development and Partnerships: Case Study of Springfield College

Sustainability:
– Impact of UVM s Employment and Purchasing Policies and Practices on Local Businesses and Lower Income Residents (June 2000)
– Update of Impacts Report (August 2001)
– List of activities, accomplishments (Fall, 2001)
Reference: Leveraging Colleges and Universities for Urban Economic Revitalization: An Action Agenda (one copy available for use by class members)

Exercise: Pick one activity and partnership from Impacts list (fall 2001) and prepare one page memo on the steps needed to make this activity/partnership sustainable

September 17:
Institutionalization and Sustainability

1 Institutionalization of Outreach and Partnerships
Discuss COPC lessons and Springfield College; Efforts at UVM
2. Sustaining Impacts Project Activities and Partnerships
Discuss student memos

3. Develop a sustainability project proposal for Advisory Committee

Assignment:
Read evaluation materials for 9/24 class

Exercise: Pick either the Employment or Purchasing part of the Impacts Project and develop a preliminary design of how you would evaluate these activities and partnerships. How can you tell if this part of the project has been successful?

September 24:
Evaluation Methods, Measures, Indicators

1. Evaluation methods for projects, programs, policies, strategies, organizations

2. Dimensions and measures of success; Community indicators

Readings:
– Mt. Auburn Associates, Evaluating Development Loan Funds, pp. 4-17
– Weiss, Carol, Nothing as Practical as Good Theory: Exploring Theory-Based Evaluation for Comprehensive Community Initiatives in Connell, James, Anne Kubisch, Lisbeth Shor, and Carol Weiss, New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives
– Hart, Maureen, Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators, pp. 3-31.

3. Develop an Impacts Evaluation Proposal for Advisory Committee

Assignment:
Read materials assigned for 10/1 class.
Prepare for meeting with Impacts Project Advisory Committee

Note: Beginning with the next class, we will spend half our class time on field project work and the other half on a series of topics related to that work and to the field of local economic development.

October 1:
Local Economic Development Theories

1. Meet with Impacts Project Advisory Committee (5-6pm)

2. Discuss Advisory Committee meeting recommendations and class field projects

3. Theory and Issues of Local Economic Development.

Reading:
O Sullivan, Urban Economics, Chapter 6 Urban Economic Growth Blakely, Ch. 3
Schramm, Richard, Local, Regional and National Strategies, Chapter 9 in Bruyn, Severyn and James Meehan, ed., Beyond the Market and the State: New Directions for Community Development

Assignment: Do readings assigned for 10/8 class
Exercise: Prepare field project plan

October 8:
Local Economic Development Policies

1. Overview of Governmental and Institutional Local Economic Development Policies

2. COPC s Targeted Buy Vermont data and the data analysis.

Readings:
– Glaeser, E., H. Kallal, J. Scheinkman and A. Shleifer (1992) Growth in Cities, Journal of Political Economy, 100, 1126-1152.
– Persky, D., D. Ranney and W. Wiewel (1993) Import Substitution and Local Economic Development, Economic Development Quarterly, 7, 18-29.

3. Work on field projects

Assignment:
Begin work on field projects
Do readings assigned for 10/15 class

October 15:
Participative, Comprehensive, Sustainable Development: Case Study of Burlington’s Enterprise Community Part I

1. The Burlington Old North End Enterprise Community; Theories of Change

2. Theories of Participation and Collaboration

3. Resident Participation; Organizations, Partnerships and Collaboration

Reading:
Article on empowerment zones/enterprise communities (to be assigned)
Common Ground (excerpts)
Schramm, Theory and Practice of Community Economic Development: Lessons from Burlington Vermont s Enterprise Community part I

4. Work on field projects

Assignment:
Read assignment for 10/22
Continue work on field project

October 22:
Participative, Comprehensive, Sustainable Development: Case Study of Burlington’s Enterprise Community Part II

1. Theory of Comprehensive, Holistic Development

2. Program of Economic, Social and Physical Development

3. Goals and Indicators; Evaluation Results

4. Work on field projects

Reading:
Schramm, Theory and Practice of Community Economic Development: Lessons from Burlington Vermont s Enterprise Community part II

Assignment:
Read assignment for 10/29
Continue work on field project

October 29:
Participative, Comprehensive, Sustainable Development: Case Study of Burlington’s Enterprise Community Part III

1. Theory of Community Economic Development and Sustainability

2. Enterprise Community Model of Workforce and Business Development

3. Evaluation Results

Reading:
Schramm, Theory and Practice of Community Economic Development: Lessons from Burlington Vermont s Enterprise Community part III

4. Work on field projects

November 5 December 3:
Remaining classes will be devoted to field project completion and presentation, with additional topics and/or speakers to be determined by class members.

December 3:
Presentation and discussion of results and initial analysis with members of the Advisory Committee

December 13:
Final wrap-up of the semester will take place during our scheduled exam period.

References

1. Community Economic Development Goals, Planning, Strategies, Organizations, Issues

Bingham, Richard and Robert Mier (eds.), Theories of Local Economic Development: Perspectives from Across the Disciplines (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993)

Bingham, Richard and Robert Mier (eds.), Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development: Issues in Theory and Practice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997)

Black, Sherry Salway, Redefining Success in Community Development, The Indigenous Planning and Development Times Issue 3, Fall 1997, (or from the Filene Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA)

Blakely, Edward and Ted Bradshaw, Planning Local Economic Development: Theroy and Practice, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000, 3rd Edition)

Bruyn, Severyn and James Meehan, ed., Beyond the Market and the State: New Directions for Community Development, (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1987)

Fosler, R. Scott, ed., Local Economic Development Strategies for a Changing Economy, (Washington, D.C.: International City Management Assoc., 1991)

Galston, William and Karen Baehler, Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1997)

Hart, Maureen, Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators (Ipswich, MA: QLF/Atlantic Center for the Environment, May 1995)

Keating, Dennis, Norman Krumholz, and Philip Star, Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996)

Malizia, Emil and John Feser, Understanding Local Economic Development (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Planning Research, 1999)

Meeker-Lowry, Susan, Invested in the Common Good, (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1995)

Mitchell, Stacy, The Hometown Advantage (Minneapolis, MN: The Institute for Local Self Reliance, 2000)

Murray, Michael and Larry Dunn, Revitalizing Rural America: A Perspective on Collaboration and Community (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996)

Perry, Stewart and Mike Lewis, Reinventing the Local Economy, (Port Alberni, British Columbia: Centre for Community Enterprise, 1994)

Roseland, Mark, Toward Sustainable Communities (Stony Creek, CT: New Society Publishers, 1998)

Shragge, Eric (ed.), Community Economic Development: In Search of Empowerment (Montreal/New York: Black Rose Books, 1997)

Shuman, Michael, Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in a Global Age, (New York: The Free Press, 1998)

2. Economic Context/Economic Analysis

Ben David-Val, Avrom, Regional and Local Economic Analysis for Practitioners, (New York: Praeger, 1991)

Berne, Robert and Richard Schramm, The Financial Analysis of Governments (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986)

Harrison, Bennett and Barry Bluestone, The Great U-Turn (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1988)

Hustedde, Ron, Ron Shaffer and Glen Pulver, Community Economic Analysis: A How To Manual (Ames, Iowa: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Iowa State University, 1984)

Korten, David, When Corporations Rule the World (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1995)

Kretzmann, John and John McKnight, Building Communities from the Inside Out, (Evanston, IL: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, 1993)

Madrick, Jeffrey, The End of Affluence: The Causes and Consequences of America s Economic Dilemma, (New York: Random House, 1997)

Mander, Jerry and Edward Goldsmith, The Case Against the Global Economy and for a Turn toward the Local (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996)

Mt. Auburn Associates, Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Assessing Your Local Economy (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Executive Office of Communities and Development, 1994)

Schramm, Richard and Duane Wilcox, Cost-Benefit Analysis for Local Governments (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Local Government Program, 1981)

Shaffer, Ron, Community Economics: Economic Structure and Change in Smaller Communities (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989)

Stephan Michelson, Community-Based Development in Urban Areas, in Robert Friedman and William Schweke (eds), Expanding the Opportunity to Produce: Revitalizing the American Economy through New Enterprise Development (Washington, DC: Corporation for Enterprise Development, 1981)

3. Employment Training, Job Development

Clark, Peggy and Steve Dawson, Jobs and the Urban Poor: Privately Initiated Sectoral Strategies (Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, November 1995)

Dewar, Tom and David Sheie, Promoting Job Opportunities, (Baltimore: Annie Casey Foundation, 1995)

Harrison, Bennett, et al, Building Bridges: Community Development Corporations and the World of Employment Training (New York: Ford Foundation, 1994)

Jobs for the Future, Mt. Auburn Associates, Nancy Nye, Brandon Roberts and Associates, and Richard Schramm, Federal Jobs Policy: History, Current Status, and Future Challenges (Oakland, CA: Neighborhood Funders Group, March, 1996)

Nye, Nancy and Richard Schramm, Federal Jobs Policy and Support for Community Economic Development (Oakland, CA: Neighborhood Funders Group, March, 1996)

O Regan, Fred and Maureen Conway, From the Bottom Up: Toward a Strategy for Income and Employment Generation Among the Disadvantaged (Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, 1993)

Seigel, Beth and Peter Kwass, Jobs and the Urban Poor: Publicly Initiated Sectoral Strategies (Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, November 1995)

Stillman, Joe, Making the Connection: Economic Development, Workforce Development, and Urban Poverty (New York: The Conservation Company, 1994)

4. Social Business

Adams, Frank T. and Gary B. Hansen, Putting Democracy to Work (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 1992)

Callenbach, Ernest et al, EcoManagement: The Elmwood Guide to Ecological Auditing and Sustainable Business (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1993)

Chappell, Tom, The Soul of Business (New York: Bantam Books, 1993)

Dickstein, Carla, John Piotta and Elizabeth Sheehan, Sustainable Development in Practice: Coastal Enterprises, Inc. s Experience, (Medford, MA: Filene Center, Tufts University, 1997)

Hawken, Paul, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York, NY: Harper Business, 1993)

Makower, Joel, Beyond the Bottom Line: Putting Social Responsibility to Work for Your Business and the World (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994)

Nye, Nancy and Schramm, Richard, Building a Learning Organization: Final Evaluation Report of Replication of Cooperative Home Care Associates for Charles Stewart Mott (Flint, MI) and Ford Foundation (New York, NY), June 1994

Nye, Nancy, Melvyn Col