This book presents a participatory model for the evaluation of community health programs and policy interventions. It is a guide for public health and community health students, practitioners, and faculty to develop community-validated evaluation programs. Discussed are two evaluation frameworks that are most commonly used in public and community heath: the Donaldson three-step program theory-driven evaluation approach and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s six-step Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health. Methods in community assessment, planning, program design, quantitative and qualitative data collection, data analysis, and dissemination of findings are outlined as a step-by-step process to program evaluation….
Research projects on health disparities frequently involve multiple communities and academic institution, thus requiring review by many institutional review boards (IRBs). Review by multiple IRBs is problematic and redundant, especially in participatory projects. This article defines IRB harmonization, and discusses how the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is working to create a community-partnered approach to streamlining IRB review across the network’s 18 grantee institutions. Hammatt, Z.H., Nishitani, J., Heslin, K.C., Perry, M.T., Szetela, C., Jones, L….Norris, K.C. (2011). Partnering to harmonize IRBs for community-engaged research to reduce health disparities. Journal of Health Care for the…
Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers
This article addresses the challenges with conducting qualitative analysis during CBPR projects, often caused by the wide range of academic preparation within the research team. The authors describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. The data analysis was conducted through experiential and conversational learning, which resulted in study findings that incorporated the thinking and speaking of all research team members—both community and academic. Foster, J. W., Chiang, F., Burgos, R. I., Cáceres, R. E., Tejada, C. M., Almonte, A. T., Noboa, F.,…Heath,…
This article is a case-based reflection on the dilemmas surrounding community-based research and how it can impact upon the experiences of both the community and the researchers facilitating the project. Reflections are contextualized within discussions from various academic orientations within the psychological and social science literature. Estacio, E. V. (2012). ‘Playing with fire and getting burned’: The case of the Naïve action researcher. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 22(5), 439-451. Full Text.
Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: An Academic Perspective
The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic–community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. This paper explores research conducted on the experience of academics in a federally funded CBPR sustainable nutrition intervention. Focus groups were conducted to gather the academic perspective on their experience devising research plans, implementing programs, and evaluating outcomes. The study found that the majority of faculty and staff members were interested in this project because it was an “egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research” (Downey, 744). This paper provides a detailed account…
A community-engaged approach to select geopraphic areas for interventions to reduce health disparities
How should researchers select the geographic locations of interventions to reduce health disparities? This paper presents the lessons learned from community-engaged selection process, in which a community-academic partnership of over 20 organizations worked to generate a 5-stage process to select an area for diabetes prevention and control programs. In conclusion, the authors suggest that using a participatory approach can be an effective way to define geographic areas for research and intervention. Cromley, E., Kleinman, L.C., Ramos, M.A., Arniella, G. , Viswanathan, M.G., & Hrowitz, C.R. (2011). A community-engaged approach to select geographic areas for interventions to reduce health disparities. Progress…
This paper explains three dimensions that universities must attend to in order to create beneficial and sustainable engagement with the community: internal (characteristics of the university), external (characteristics of the community), and personal (characteristics of the faculty). The authors argue that sustainable types of engagement are those that positively address each of these dimensions, and lead to valued capacity building for the community. They discuss the experience of Eastern Michigan University’s Institute for the Study of Children, Families and Communities to illustrate the challenges and strategies for building successful university-community relationships. Clifford, D., & Petrescu, C. (2012) The keys to…
Increasing globalization, population diversity, and health disparities among non-dominant cultures necessitate cross-cultural research. This article presents approaches to dealing with the challenges of cross-cultural research, which an emphasis on how a CBPR approach can be used to conduct culturally competent research. Clark, M. J. (2012). Cross-cultural research: Challenge and competence. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(Supplement 2), 28-37. Full Text.
Adapting to context in community-Based participatory research: “Participatory starting points” in a Chinese immigrant worker’s community
Using data from a CPBR case study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing on literature on immigrant political incorporation, the authors examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by the research collaborative, and study outcomes. It concludes by sharing lessons learned on how to adapt CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners’ needs. Chang, C., Salvatore, A. L., Lee, P. T., Liu, S. S., Tom, A. T., Morales, A., Baker, R.,… Minkler, M. (2013). Adapting to context in community-Based participatory research: “Participatory starting…
Community and organizational readiness can influence whether health interventions are implemented, so CBPR partnerships may consider using readiness assessments as a tool for tailoring interventions to specific communities. This article presents a critical review of 13 community and organizational readiness assessment models. The review concludes that readiness is multidimensional, but finds four essential components of readiness that are critical to assess. Castaneda, S. F., Holscher, J., Mumman, M. K., Salgado, H., Keir, K. B., Foster-Fishman, P. G., & Talavera, G. A. (2012). Dimensions of community and organizational readiness for change. Progress in Community Health Partnerships, 6(2), 219-226. Full Text.
This paper describes the lessons learned from an international research partnership between two northern universities, one southern university, and a southern faith-based organization. The research project evaluated a school-based HIV prevention intervention with South African adolescents, and through this process seven fieldwork-related challenges were revealed. Lessons learned from these challenges—along with how they prepared for each one, what happened on the ground, and possible unintended consequences—are described in detail. Casale, M.A.J., Flicker, S., & Nixon, S.A. (2011). Fieldwork challenges: Lessons learned from a north-south public health research partnership. Health Promotion Practice, 12(5), 734-735. Full Text.
The dissemination of research findings to participating individuals and institutions upon project completion is an important principle of community-based research. This document offers information on developing a dissemination plan, general writing guidelines, and strategies for dissemination (i.e. media coverage, press release, research summary document, flyers, brochures, policy briefs, letter of thanks). Also included in this resource are sample dissemination documents.CARE: Community alliance for research and engagement. Beyond Scientific Publication: Strategies for Disseminating Research Findings. Yale Center for Clinical Investigation. 1-19. Full Text.
This paper presents a new awareness-action framework for universities to use to assess, and improve, their engagement with disadvantaged communities. The authors present the research from which the framework was developed, and explain how universities can use the framework to engage with disadvantaged communities in an inclusive and equitable manner.Butcher, J., Leathley, C., & Johnston, K. (2011). An awareness and action framework for transformative community engagement. Australasian Journal of University-Community Engagement, 6(2), 18-36. Full Text.
The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential “tipping points”. Systems thinking tools can assist all CBPR stakeholders in visualizing how community factors are interrelated, and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. BeLue, R., Carmack, C., Myers, K. R., Weinreb-Welch, L., & Lengerich, E. J. (2012). Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: A case study. Health Education and Behavior, 39(6), 745-751. Full Text.
This paper analyzes the effectiveness of a qualitative research method, the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), used in a CBPR project in Mendocino and Humboldt counties of California. Did the CIT method facilitate or impede the engagement of the community in the research process? The authors describe how the CIT method was used in a CBPR research project involving an academic researcher and two community-based cancer support centers, reporting that the CIT method effectively facilitated community engagement in the research process. Belkora, J., Stupar, L., & O’Donnell, S. (2011). Using the Critical Incident Technique in community-based participatory research: A case study….
The actionable researcher: Cultivating a process-oriented methodology for studying administrative practice
This article is a first attempt to conceptualize a process-oriented methodology for studying administrative practice. This methodology draws on approaches such as action research and policy mediation. But, first and foremost, the methodology calls for an actionable researcher who is responsive to the inherent resistances and affordances of the process of coproducing knowledge with policy actors, enabling the researcher to act in response to the needs of problematic situations at hand. Bartels, K.P.R. (2012). The actionable researcher: Cultivating a process-oriented methodology for studying administrative practice. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 34(3), 433-455. Full Text.
Women’s empowerment is key to the health and rights of women worldwide, and achieving women’s empowerment requires approaches that “promote participation and incite action”(Aziz, 303). This paper describes Aga Khan University’s (AKU) participation in Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts (WEMC), a five-component study that used a participatory action research approach. The AKU-WEMC “adapted the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools to explore women’s perceptions and reflections on their existent situation and aspired needs with respect to empowerment, community’s overall health, mental health, reproductive health, daily work load, access to resources, participation in decision-making and violence against women” (Aziz, 103). A five-step…
Designing community-based courses: A guide for instructors to develop community partnerships and create public scholarship courses
This handbook is a guide for faculty, lecturers, graduate students, and staff to create, implement, or strengthen engaged scholarship courses. The handbook contains six sections: Engaged Public Scholarship, Building Campus-Community Partnerships, Developing Engaged Scholarship Courses, Supporting Student Engagement with the Community, Deepening the Learning with Reflection, Developing Evaluation and Assessment for Engaged Scholarship. Avila-Lynn, C., Rice K., & Akin, S. (2012). Designing community-based courses: A guide for instructors to develop community partnerships and create public scholarship courses. Cal Corps Public Service Center, University of California Berkeley. 3-45. Full Text.
In this paper, two management professors propose a new model for conducting engaged scholarship—the dialogical model. This model comprises five activities: specifying a research question, elaborating local knowledge, developing conceptual knowledge, communicating knowledge, and activating knowledge. The dialogical model provides guidance on how to maintain academic value and practical relevance in tension throughout the research process, and on how to justify validity in pragmatic constructivism. The authors explain how the dialogical model was developed in the pragmatic constructivist epistemological paradigm, and suggest how the model can be mobilized in other epistemological frameworks. Avenier, M.J., & Cajaiba, A. P. (2012). The…
The past two decades have brought important changes to the ways archaeologists engage with indigenous, descendant, local communities and the public at large. This book outlines the principles of CBPR and demonstrates how CBPR can be effectively applied to archeology. It provides theoretical discussions as well as practical examples of CBPR in archeology. Atalay, S. (2012). Community-based archeology: Research with, by, and for indigenous and local communities. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Full Text.
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