Multicultural Children s Literature

January 26, 2001

TIME: Mondays and Wednesdays
Section 1: 2:00 3:50 P.M., Section 2: 6:00 7:50 P.M.

LOCATION: Section 1: – Bldg 45, Room 102
Section 2: Bldg 45, Room 105
Office: Bldg. 15, Room 164
Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays (By appointment)

Required Texts:
Harris, V. (Ed.). Using, Multiethnic Literature in the K-8 Classroom. (1997). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.
Bigleow, Bill. Rethinking Columbus: The Next 500 Years. (1998), Rethinking Schools, Dorris, Michael. Morning Girl. (1992). NY: Hyperion. Steptoe, John. The Story of Jumping Mouse.
Anaya, Rudolfo. Bless Me. Ultima. (1972). Tonatiu-Quinto-Sol International Ada, Alma Flor. Gathering the Sun. (1997). Lothrop, Lee & Shepard. Soto, Gary. Chato's Kitchen. (1995). G.P. Putnam's Sons
Pico, Fernando. The Red Comb. (1991). Bridgewater Ross, Gayle & Bruchac, Joseph. The Girl Who Married the Moon.
Yamane, Linda. Weaving a California Tradition: A Native American Basketmaker. (1997). Lemer
Broker, Ismatia. Night Flying Woman: an 0jibway Narrative. (1983). St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Caduto, Michael. Earth Tales from Around the World. (1997). Golden, CO: Fulcrum.
Martinez, Alejandro Cruz. The Woman Who Outshone the Sun/La mujer que brillaba asi demas que el sol. (1991). SF, CA: Children's Book Press.
Trisn-Khdnh-Tuvet. The Little Weaver of Thdi-Yen Village. (1987) Children's Book Press.
Yep, Laurence. Dragon's Gate.
Taylor, Mildred D. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. (1976). Harper & Row. Steptoe, John. Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters. (1991). Lothrop
Ringgold, Faith. My Dream of Martin Luther King. (1995). NY: Crown.
Lacapa, Kathleen & Michael. Less Than Half, More than Whole. (1994) Rising Moon
Moroney, Lynn. Elinda Who Danced in the Sky. (1990). Children's Book Press.
Yolen, Jane. The Devil's Arithmetic. (1988). Puffin

Additional required and optional readings are on course reserve in the library

Recommended Texts
Slapin, B. & Seale, D. Through Indian Eves: The Native Experience in Books for Children. (1998). Oyate
Caduto, M. & Bruchac, J. Keepers of Life: Discovering Plants Through Native American Stories and Earth Activities for Children. Fulcrum
Sheldon, Dyan. The Whale's Song. (1991). Dial.
Anzaldoa, Gloria. Prietita and the Ghost Woman. Children's Book Press.
Cullian, B. & Galda, L. Literature and the Child. (1994). HBJ.
Rohmer, Harriet. Mother Scorpion Country. (1987). SF,CA: Children's Book Press.
Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures/Cuadros de familia. (1990). SF,CA: Children's Book Press.
Cherry, Lynne. The Dragon and the Unicorn. (1995). Harcourt Brace.
Uchida, Yoshiko. A Jar of Dreams. (198 1). Aladdin
Myers, Walter Dean. The Glory Field.
Woodson, Jacqueline. The House You Pass on the Way.
Aardema, V. Anansi Does the Impossible!
Ortiz, Simon. The People Shall Continue. (1988). SF: Children's Book Press.

Course Description
Multicultural Children's Literature is a designated Service Learning (SL) course designed primarily for Liberal Studies or Teacher Education students to assist them in becoming knowledgeable about a wide range of outstanding multicultural literature from various cultural groups, most of which are under-represented. Reading, understanding, discussing, and analyzing literature written from diverse ethnic, linguistic, and cultural perspectives provides students the opportunity to make important connections across and within groups that can facilitate and expand the reading and writing skills of children as well as their view of what it means to be human.

Students will be engaged in identifying bias-free literature, shared readings, reading aloud activities, creative dramatics, and opportunities to learn and practice effective storytelling and story reading techniques. Students will become knowledgeable about the history and politics of multicultural children's literature as well as the historical, sociopolitical, and cultural contexts of the books from each cultural group. Along with the above, students will also be taught to recognize, understand and incorporate the many cultural symbols and their meaning (from the "target" culture's perspective) into their analyses and understanding of this diverse literature. The Service Learning component requires students to perform a minimum of 25 hours of service reading, telling stories, and other creative ways of sharing these cross-cultural gems (cleared with the instructor) in designated schools as arranged by the Service Learning Institute in conjunction with the instructor and the student.

Since this Learning experience is designed to meet the Literature and Popular Culture ULR, as well as the Culture and Equity ULR, what follows next will be the criteria for assessment for those 2 ULRs:

LIT & Pop Cult: Compare and contrast the literatures of at least three different cultural groups, two of which are non-Euro-centric.

Criteria for Assessment:

I. Does the work demonstrate the ability to interpret literary works comparatively (at least 3 cultures, 2 of which are non-Eurocentric)?
2.Does the work relate these literary texts to the time, place, class, and culture in which they were created?
3. Does the work demonstrate the ability to understand how race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, disability, age, and nationality inform and influence writers and readers?
4. Does the work demonstrate the ability to apply methods of literary analysis to a wide range of literary works?
5. Does the work demonstrate an appreciation of literature as an art form?

Cult & Equity: The University Learning Requirement (ULR) on Culture and Equity is required of all CSUINIB students to graduate. To meet this ULR, student must:
Demonstrate a comprehension of one·s individual cultural identity in relationship to other cultures and lifestyles within their contexts; and demonstrate critical awareness of relations of power as well as means for creating greater equity and social justice.
This ULR combines the former Culture and Equity ULRs into a single ULR.

Criteria for assessment
comprehend the concept of culture and can apply this concept to the comparison of their own culture with other cultures;
comprehend the concept of cultural identity and can apply this concept to the comparison of their own cultural identity with the cultural identity of people from other cultures;
comprehend the concepts of power relations, equity and social justice; and that they can apply these concepts to U.S. society as well as other societies;
demonstrate critical awareness of the relations of power that exist between different cultural groups in the United States and in other societies;
demonstrate critical awareness of how to create greater equity and social justice in the United States and in other societies.

Learning Outcomes

1. Students will be familiar with a variety of high-quality authors of multicultural children's literature, both classic and contemporary. The many artistic genres of children's literature (picture books, poetry and verse, folk literature, fantasy, science fiction, realistic contemporary fiction, realistic historical fiction, biography, and non fiction) will be studied from diverse cultural and pluralistic perspectives.

2. Students will be able to identify bias-free, age appropriate, relevant, and multicultural literature, and utilize it as a means of motivating children to engage in meaningful literacy activities and, most importantly, to cause them to love reading!

3. Students will be able to recognize diverse literature as a culture's artistic means of expressing their collective and individual selves and will use this material in expanding the reading and writing- activities, stirring the imagination, and enhancing children's reading, and writing skills.

4. Students will be able to demonstrate how literature can provide strong language skills literary models, and dramatic expression for children.

5. Students will be able to assist children in finding cross-cultural links and common relationships will also be explored. The core of universal human values. Unequal power between underrepresented groups, with particular emphasis on who has gotten published historically and the legacy that remains today.

6. Students will learn the tools of analysis in interpreting and analyzing the conventions and traditional forms of literature and applying them to cross cultural analysis. Additionally, depth psychology will be used to analyze and interpret archetypal symbols and motifs found in cross-cultural literature.

7. Students will demonstrate effective story telling techniques, literature response workshops, creative dramatics, and read aloud activities as a means of advancing children in both competency and a genuine passion for reading.

8. Students will create an interdisciplinary unit featuring excellent multicultural literature and make a dramatic presentation in the class as a highlight of the contents of this project.

9. Students will develop bibliographic and research expertise by developing annotated bibliographies and writing descriptive reviews. The use of the library and electronic data bases will support this learning.

10. Students will provide service to local communities in schools as a means of demonstrating civic responsibility by promoting literacy and promoting and developing a personal spirit of volunteerism.

Evaluation of Student Performance
Participation and promptness in class are prime requirements to pass this Learning Experience. If you miss a class, this will not be viewed as a reason not to know what happened in that session. Since each class session carries with it a specific percentage of your grade (23%), that amount (I point) is lost for each absence. Additionally, a small percentage (half a point) will also be deducted for tardiness or leaving class early. Absences will not be excused, nor may they be "made up."

Grades/Learning Outcomes: You will receive a grade equivalent for this course work. The Culture & Equity ULR and the Literature & Popular Culture ULR are met with a grade of "C" or better. The important details on student evaluation, grading, due dates, and instruction for the class projects will appear in the Assignment Section.

Week 1
1/26/00 (W) Introduction to Course, instructor, classmates, syllabus, etc Assign "Hand Me Down Tales."

Week 2 1/31/00 (M) Lecture: Introduction to Children·s Literature: Historical Overview. Optional reading for next class: Cullinan/Galda·s Criteria for Evaluation of Children·s Literature and bibliography examples in Course Reserve (Library).
2/02/00 (W) Lecture: Introduction to Children·s Literature: Genres. Discuss Service Learning. For next class, be ready to share personal stories (Hand Me Down Tales).

Week 3
2/07/00 (M) Share personal stories/Hand Me Down Tales. For next class, read the Madigan article (The Politics of Multicultural Literature for
Children) in Course Reserve, look at Bennett·s Conceptual Model of a
Multicultural Curriculum (Course Reserve), and read Chapter 10
(Developing a Multicultural Perspective) in the Harris text.
2/09/00 (W). Topic: Culture and Multicultural Education. For next class, read Morning Girl and the following selections from Rethinking Columbus: "Discovering Columbus" pp.17-21; "Once Upon a Genocide" pp. 47-55; and "Good Intentions Are Not Enough" pp. 62-68.

Week 4
2/14/00 (M) Topic: The Politics of Children·s Literature. For next class,
read Chapter 1 (Selecting Literature).
2/16/00 (W) Continue discussion of the Politics of Children·s Literature. Service Learning discussion on entering communities and starting service.

Week 5
2/21/00 (M). SERVICE LEARNING TIME (NO CLASS). For next class,
read The Story of Jumping Mouse.
2/23/00 (W) Lecture on Psychology and Children·s Lit: Jung (cultural symbols and the collective unconscious) and Campbell (the Hero/Heroine motif in traditional cultural stories). For next class: read chap. 5 in Harris text (Mexican-American Literature), Chato·s Kitchen, and Gathering the Sun

Week 6
2/28/00 (M) Topic: Mexican-American/Latino literature. For next class, finish Bless Me Ultima and read the poems on Course Reserve by Navarro and Soto.

Week 5
3/01/00 (W) Mexican-American/Latino Literature continued
Next: Read Chap. 3 in the Harris text (Puerto-Rican Literature), Tile Red
Comb, and pp. 106-111 in Rethinking Columbus

Week 7
3/06/00 (M) Topic: Puerto-Rican Literature. For next class, read your assigned stories from The Girl Who Married the Moon and prepare to retell the assigned story in class; also, read p. 30 (map), pp. 32-33 "What Not to Teach", and pp. 35-41 "Native Issues" in Rethinking Columbus
3/08/00 (W) Topic: Native American Literature/Storytelling. For next class: Read Chap. 6 in Harris text (Native-American Literature) and Weaving a California Tradition and Night Flying Woman

Week 8
3/13/00 (M) Native American Literature continued. For next class, study!
3/15/00 (W) Exam 1 (SL Time after you finish exam). For next class, read Earth Tales from Around the World and pp. 165-171 in Rethinking Columbus

Week 9

Week 10
3/27/00 (M) Topic: Environmental Issues in literature. SL LOGS DUE.
For next class, read The Woman Who Outshone the Sun and pp. 160-161 in
Rethinking Columbus. Optional reading in course reserve: Resources for
Multicultural Children·s Literature
3/29/00 (W) Topic: Gender issues in literature. Next: Read Chap. 4 (Asian
Pacific Islander Literature), The Little Weaver of Thai-Yen Village and
Dragon·s Gate

Week 11
4/03/00 (M) Topic: Asian/Pacific Islander Lit. For next class: Read Chap.2
in Harris text (African-American Literature), Roll of Thunder, Hear My
Cry, Mufaro·s Beautiful Daughters, and My Dream of Martin Luther King,

Week 12
4/10/00 (INI) Topic: African American Literature. For next class, read pp. 24-27 and pp. 125-127 in Rethinking Columbus
4/12/00 (W) African-American literature continued. For next class: read Chapter 9 in Harris text (Reading Multiculturally), Less than Half, More than Whole, and Course Reserve poem (Child of the Americas)

Week 13
4/17/00 (M) Topics: Gay and lesbian issues, "mixed" ethnicities, differently-abled people in children·s literature. BIBLIOGRAPHIES DUE.
For next class, read The Devil·s Arithmetic and p. 162 in Rethinking Columbus.

Week 14
4/26/00 (W) Topic: European-American Literature. CHILD OF THE AMERICAS POEM DUE.
For next class, read Elinda Who Danced in the Sky

Week 15
5/01/00 (M) European and European/American Literature continued. Service Learning activity: exiting the communities and putting the pieces together.

5/03/00 (W) EXAM 2 ISL Time after you finish exam}

Week 16
5/08/00 (M) Project presentations.

5/10/00 (W) Project presentations and Closing the Circle. FINAL SL

S 394SL Multicultural Children's Literature Required books by category:

Politics of Children's Literature
Morning Girl (Arawak: historical fiction/novel)
Psychology of Children's Literature
The Story of Jurnpine Mouse (Cheyenne: folk literature/picture book)
Gathering the Sun (rural: poetry/alphabet book/picture book)
Bless Me Ultima (New Mexico: fiction/novel)
Chato·s Kitchen (urban: fantasy/humor/picture book)
Puerto Rican
The Red Comb (Puerto Rican: historical fiction/picture book)
Native American
Weaving a California Tradition (Mono:nonfiction/picture book)
Night Flying Woman (Ojibway: biography)
The Girl Who Married the Moon (various: folk literature)
Earth Tales from Around the World (Folk Lit/anthology)
The Woman Who Outshone the Sun (India-Indigenous/Mexico: folk lit./pict. book)
Asian-American -and Pacific Islanders
The Little Weaver of Thai-Yen Village (Vietnamese: hist. Fic./picture book)
Dragon's Gate (Chinese-American: historical fiction)
Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (historical fiction: novel)
Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters (Africa: folk fit./picture book)
I Have a Dream of Martin Luther King, Jr* (biographical fiction/picture book)
"Mixed" Ethnicities
Less than Half, More than Whole (Native American: contemp. Fiction)
The Devil's Arithmetic (Jewish-American/Poland: historical fiction/novel)
Elinda Who Danced in the Sky (Estonia: folk lit./picture book)

Each assignment has a designated point value. Assignments are of varying lengths and In types: some are to be done cooperatively with a partner or small group, and others are individual in-class and out-of-class work. Total possible points are 100.
The following are the grade equivalents for this class:
A=94-100;A-=93-91;B+=90-88;B=87-85; B- = 84-82; C+ = 81-79; C = 78-75; C- = 74 -70; D = 69-60; F =59 and below.

Remember: Your work will not be evaluated on volume, weight, time, or effort exerted, but on adherence to the assignment, quality of work (substantive critique/discussion that integrates other knowledge sources such as readings, articles, books, class lectures or discussions and goes beyond literal understanding, beyond the obvious, or superficial observations), standard form (correct spelling, grammar, usage), promptness, and professional attention to the final product. You may not assume that you will get an extension. For exceptional circumstances, you must discuss this with the Instructor IN ADVANCE OF THE DUE DATE.

Please note: ALL WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS MUST BE NEATLY TYPED, DOUBLE-SPACED, PROOFREAD FOR STANDARD SPELLING, GRAMMAR, ETC. BEFORE SUBMISSION. THEY ARE TO BE SUBMITTED ON THE DATE DUE. Late submissions will reduce your grade by 10%. These points will be cumulatively lost each day.

Important Assignment Notice: Under NO CIRCUMSTANCES are you to send ANY of your assigned work to me over ANY FORM of ELECTRONIC MAIL unless it is specified otherwise in the instructions for that particular assignment. Any attempts to circumvent this class policy will be ignored. Thank you.

MEETING LEARNING OUTCOMES. These assignments have been carefully designed so that successful completion will be equivalent to meeting the outcome (s). After each assignment there is a Learning Outcome (LO) number(s) listed. The LO listed in large. told underlined (e.g., z~ LO #3) print indicates that it is the primary focus of the assignment.

1 . "Hand Me Down" Tales –What stories, rhymes, poems did you hear as a child? Conduct research on cultural "literary gems" that have been handed down in your family: stories, jingles, tales, finger plays, or poems that may not necessarily have been written or whose origins you do not know, but that someone in your family told you when you were a child. These rich, cultural "literary gems" may have been ones you heard from your grandmother, your great uncle or aunt, or friend. They may be in English or in another language, or a combination of both. They may be a collection of riddles, sayings, or similar genres. Interview the person who remembers the story, record it for yourself, and for next week provide a typewritten synopsis of the story/tale/literary gem and tell its origins or how you collected it. Retain as much of the authenticity as possible, even if they are story fragments. This means that you may write them in their original language (but please provide an English translation). Be ready to share them with the class—no more than 5 minutes each. We will collect these and put them in a notebook for class use. (LO # 5), (L&PC #5, C&E #2) 5 points DUE DATE: FEBRUARY 7, 2000

2. Annotated Bibliography of Classic & Contemporary Multicultural Children's Literature. You will read, evaluate, summarize, critique, and document literature appropriate for culturally and linguistically diverse learners. The bibliography will contain complete annotation including:

    Author, title, copyright date. illustrator, publisher, number of pages. genre language (s), cultural group(s) represented,

Synopsis: tell what the book is about;

Brief evaluation of bias-free nature: This section might include noting, the insider perspective of author/illustrator, whether the cultural group is depicted without negative stereotypes, whether stereotypes, are dispelled by the book, or whether the culture is represented accurately and authentically. Note any problems you detect. Use specific examples and details from the book to support your evaluation. If you are an insider to the culture, you may wish to include your personal knowledge of the culture in evaluating the book;

Literary quality: What literary elements contribute to the quality of this work? Choose one or more of the following elements: setting (time & place of story), point of view (1st, 2nd, 3rd person), characterization (who the main characters are & how they are developed), plot (what happens), theme (underlying meaning), style (language expresses theme, amount of description, dialogue, action), or format (visual impression). Describe how these literary elements make the book outstanding. You will find the Cullinan/Galda criteria and checklists (on Course Reserve) helpful to you in writing this section. Again, use specific evidence from the book to illustrate your points;

Ideas for literacy/interdisciplinary extensions: Describe several ideas for using, the book in the classroom. Can you use it to teach math, science, social studies, language arts, music, art? Be specific.

The bibliography should contain at least 5 books (not including required texts) that move you, all from the following non-mainstream ethnic groups (American Indian, Southeast Asian-American, African-American, Chicano/Mexican-American) and set in the USA. The bibliography should include four different genres (for example: poetry, folk literature, historical fiction, biography, contemporary fiction. fantasy, information books, etc.).

I am available to answer questions on this assignment, look at books to make sure they fit the criteria, or to read drafts of your annotations and give feedback prior to the due date. Be aware that it is difficult to adequately annotate a book in less than 1 1/2 – 2 double-spaced pages. See the examples and the Cullinan/Galda criteria on Course Reserve for guidance on this assignment. (LO # I and 2) (L&PC #1,2,3,4,5) (C&E #1,2,3,4,5) 10 points
DUE DATE: APRIL 17, 2000

3. Storytelling/Reading in Schools—Service Learning component.
You will be required to perform 25 hours of service throughout the semester to designated schools where you will participate in storytelling, literature readings, or other literacy activities for children. These service hours must be verified by the program supervisor at each site. Specific details on how this will be done, will be discussed in class. Your time at the site should include either reading, several short books to a child or small group, or reading a longer chapter book over the course of your visits (this is only recommended if it is the same site and audience throughout the readings). For each session, the books you select to read can be far ranging or specific to the child/group interests. Whatever books you choose should be practiced in advance and retained after the session to help you with your reflection. You might also participate in other related projects at the site. The goals of this project are to provide service by promoting literacy, to learn about children's response to literature, to enhance your questioning strategies and critical stance toward literature, and to give you extensive practice and confidence in the art of story reading/telling. Each session must be carefully documented in your Service Learning Reading/Activity Log with the following information:


Date of service:

Time: actual hours (for example, 8:20 A.M. – 9:50 A.M.) and total (1 hr 30 mins)

Book (s) read: (title, author, number of pages, language)

Journal: Include discussion or activities, children·s responses, your own response, or any other journalizing, you do in response to the session.

This SL Reading,/Activity Log should be typed and turned in twice during the semester: the two due dates are March 27, 2000 and May 5, 2000 (8 points)

In addition, you will write a reflection paper. This final paper should answer the course meta-question (see below) and should include what you found out about yourself and your own learning this semester (5-6 pages, 8 points). Reflection Paper is due May 10, 2000.

Course " Meta-Question":
What is the role of Multicultural Children's Literature in "liberation pedagogy" and to what extent does this connect with the CSUMB student's personal goals?
Also, both in-class and on-line reflection, discussion, and activities related to your service learning experience will be included to enhance this learning experience. Instructions for these activities will be given to you later. (4 points)
The evaluation of the community partners (3 points) will be considered, along with the student reflection papers, when evaluating the final grade. If, due to illness or emergency, you must be absent or late to a scheduled service learning session, you are required to notify the site and the course instructor as far in advance as possible. Failure to follow this policy, as well as excessive absences or tardiness, affect your relationship with the community partner and affect your grade! (LO # 7.2. 10, 4.3,8; 23 points total)

Service Learning Support
Michael Gerhardt, University Service Advocate
Service Learning Institute, Bldg. 8

Michael Gerhardt works as part of the student leadership team with the Service Learning Institute. He has successfully completed an intensive four-week service learning or student leadership development program, the Summer of Service Leadership Academy (SoSLA), has supported this learning experience in the past, and continues to receive ongoing support, training and supervision from the Service Learning Institute.
Our USA is an excellent resource regarding service learning. Michael is available to assist you with any questions about your placement in the community or about this learning experience. Also, Michael will serve as both a teaching and community placement assistant for this learning experience.

4. Participation
A crucial component of this learning experience is your participation. You cannot participate if you do not attend class sessions, so attendance and promptness are required (23 points). Participation also requires preparation; therefore, you are expected to read the assigned work before coming to class and to contribute to class discussions and activities. This participation will include in-class written responses (4 points) to class readings. (secondary TO ALL) (L&PC ALL) (C&E ALL)

5. Exams
Two multiple-choice content exams on the assigned readings and class lectures will be given. You must achieve at least a D grade (60%) to receive points for an exam. Exam 1:March 15, 2000. Exam 2:May 3, 2000
(LO #1,2,3,5,6) (L&PC 2,3) (C&E 1,3,4) 10 points each (20 points total)

You will read and reflect on the poem "Child of the Americas" in the Course Reserve. Then, using the structure and theme of the poem, you will write your own "Child of the Americas" poem reflecting your own unique mix of influences and cultural heritages. This poem will be typed, shared orally in class, and turned in. Due Date: April 26, 2000 (LO #1, 3, 4) (L&PC 2,3, 5) (C&E 1, 2, 3,) (5 points)

7. Final group project
In groups of approximately 5-6 people, you will create an interdisciplinary unit featuring excellent multicultural children·s literature and make a dramatic presentation in the class as a highlight of the contents of this project. The presentation should involve multimedia, including such forms as creative dramatics, powerpoint, music, dance, puppetry, video, etc. This project should include a form of personification in which each student purposely identifies with some character from our class material and presents their portion of our final group project from that character·s perspective. Creativity and innovation in this project will be richly rewarded. The perspective gains from this Learning Experience should be incorporated in the views, attitudes and content displayed in this final group presentation. Each presentation will be allowed not more than 40 minutes for the total presentation, with about 5-10 minutes for class discussion included in this time. Props, costumes, and stage decorations are welcomed as scene enhancers. The projects may focus on key issues in multicultural literature, special informative stories, and especially newly adapted versions of stories done by the group as special lessons for the class. Finally, this festive presentation should be a celebration of the growth in knowledge, perspective, and empathy that each student has gained through the class readings, service learning, the lecture/discussions and the assignments. Your project will be evaluated on content, creativity, classroom application, presentation, and accompanying unit packet. Presentations will take place on May 8 and 10. This assignment will be explained in more detail later. (LO # 1-9) (L&PC ALL) (C&E ALL) 1 10 points

School: California State University, Monterey Bay
Professor: Terri Wheeler
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