Crime and Social Control
1 Chamberlain Ave
Office Hours: Tues/Thurs 11am to 1pm (and by appointment)
Section One meets 8:00am – 9:15am Tuesdays and Thursdays, in 206 Bailey Hall, Gorham Campus.
Section Two meets 1:00pm – 2:15pm Tuesdays and Thursdays, in 402 Luther Bonney Hall, Portland Campus.
Course Content and Objectives:
This course offers a detailed examination and exploration of state-sponsored responses to criminal activity. We are especially interested in the historical trends in social control developing since the industrial revolution, the impact of economic conditions, and gender on social control policies. Students are required to study social control in context through the 20 hours of service learning in the local community. This course is designed for students to analyze social control by applying contemporary criminological theory to current methods of social control and by reading current research in this area.
Prerequisites: Soc 100J, CRM 215J, CRM 220 or 222. Students who have not satisfied these prerequisites are ineligible to enroll in this class. This is very closely monitored and exceptions are not made.
Books to purchase:
Blomberg, Thomas and Stanley Cohen. 1995. Punishment and Social Control. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, Inc.
Maxson, Cheryl and Malcolm Klein. 1997. Responding to Troubled Youth. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morris, Norval and David Rothman, editors. 1998. The Oxford History of the Prison: The Practice of Punishment in Western Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hudson, Jo, Allison Morris, Gabrielle Maxwell and Burt Galway. 1996. Family Group Conferences: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Monsey, NY: The Federation Press.
Miller, Susan L., editor. 1998. Crime Control and Women: Feminist Implication of Criminal Justice Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
There is also a Course Packet to be purchased at the bookstore.
On Reserve in the Portland Campus Library:
Ignatieff, Michael. 1978. A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution. London: Penguin Books.
Foucault, Michel. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books (photocopies of chapters one and two).
Cohen, Stanley. 1985. Visions of Social Control. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing Co.
Durkheim, Émile. 1990. “Two Laws of Penal Evolution” Année Sociologique 4: 65-95, reprinted in The Sociology of Punishment: Socio-Cultural Perspectives, edited by Dario Melossi.
1. Problem-Based Service-Learning Project (40 percent)
2. Policy Term Paper (40 percent)
3. Class Participation (20 percent)
1. The Problem-Based Service-Learning projects (PBSL) require students to volunteer twenty (20) hours to work in an agency of social “service”/control. A list of local agencies is available, but students are not limited to that list. Ideally, PBSL projects should be aimed at helping the agency solve a specific problem they face. You are required to work in teams of three (never more than four). Documentation of your projects should be compiled and submitted in a portfolio and include:
__ signed (by a designated staff member of the agency) permission form to work in that agency
__ address and phone number of the agency
__ hourly time-sheets signed by an employee of the agency where students hours are documented
__ daily learning log (or journal) of experiences, observations and analysis of the projects. Analysis MUST INCORPORATE readings from the class discussions
The following steps are required:
STEP ONE: first week of class, brainstorm with classmates on where to do the PBSL project.
STEP TWO: by the third week of classes (February 3, 2000) written submissions of where projects will most likely be done.
STEP THREE: by the fourth week of classes (February 10, 2000), Volunteer Acceptance Forms submitted. They must be signed by a member of the agency. Keep a copy in your portfolios as well.
STEP FOUR: by the fifth week of classes (February 17, 2000) when students begin serving their twenty hours, a specific plan of action should be in place. In order to ensure that everyone has the same expectations, all parties must be clear on the tasks to be accomplished. This plan of action must be written out, submitted in writing, with copies kept in portfolios.
STEP FIVE: throughout the semester, students should reflect on the readings for this class within the context of their PBSL experiences. For example, how would Stan Cohen situate this type of agency? as part of the ’original transformation· or something else? another ’diversionary· agency? are its ’boundaries· clear? who is expected to participate in the ’work· of this agency? etc… In the journal entries, students MUST incorporate the academic theory/readings into the analysis of these agencies. Failure to do so will result in a failing grade, despite the hours spent serving this agency. Students should constantly ask themselves how the readings pertain to the service learning projects. If there are problems with making analytical connections, students with questions should come to class prepared to inquire about the reading materials and other students should come to class prepared to discuss these connections.
STEP SIX: at the conclusion of the twenty hours, group members will submit an analytical paper of the PBSL projects. The group paper is required to apply the theory of social control as it relates to this agency. The following questions should guide this analysis. Where would you situate this agency in the scheme of social control? How does this agency accomplish “control”? Who are the targets of their control? Who are the agency·s clients? How have the readings illuminated certain themes and issues faced by this agency? in terms of race, class and gender inequalities and practices? How are ’authority· and ’power· exercised?
STEP SEVEN: PBSL project portfolios and group papers are to be submitted by April 6, 2000 in class, or by 4:00pm in my office. That is, each individual student submits his or her own portfolio containing the above-stated sections and each group submits its analytical paper on the same day. So, for each group with three members, submissions include three individual portfolios and one analytical paper.
Examples of good portfolios are available on reserve in the library and in the Criminology Department office.
2. Policy Term Paper: the policy term paper requires students to investigate further issues related to the type of agency where the PBSL projects were conducted. The term paper should be about 2500 words following the Department of Criminology Guide to writing papers (available at 1 Chamberlain Ave). As there has been some confusion on this in the past, papers should summarize the existing research findings on the type of agency being examined, not the particular agency located in the community. The substance of the term paper should go beyond the discussions in class of these types of social control efforts. Research papers that are adequately ’built· should have at least 10 – 15 current scholarly references (“current” means published since 1992, and “scholarly” means published in peer-reviewed academic journals, academic anthologies, an academic study published as a book, etc.). Government reports should be used sparingly as they typically do not incorporate theoretical analysis in report, and will not aid the development of the papers significantly. Sources from the internet should be viewed with extreme caution, as there is no quality control in that domain. All internet materials should be approved by me prior to being used in the paper. USM·s library has a good summary of how to evaluate web sites. It is found on the USM Library home page. Policy term papers should follow this outline:
I. Theory/history of this type of social control
II. Ideologies (stated and unstated) of this type of social control
III. Summary of empirical research findings on this type of social control
IV. Critique of this type of social control using theory outlined in class and/or the scholarship
V. Recommendations for improvement based on “moral pragmatism”
Writing is a skill, requiring constant practice, that should be taken very seriously. One element of effective writing is self-discipline and vigilance. Sentence structure should vary; grammar and punctuation should be used correctly; paragraph construction should be effective; conceptual organization of the paper should flow in a logical order. None of this can be accomplished at the last minute. Do not procrastinate in writing these term papers. As soon as the PBSL agency is selected, go to the library to begin researching similar types of social control in the United States. Read this research throughout the semester as the PBSL projects are proceeding, keeping notes on your readings/thoughts. Writing drafts of the term paper, beginning early in the semester, assists in making the final product complete, coherent and comprehensive, as it should be. Submission deadlines are fixed (no extensions will be granted, period). Computers are available on campus for all students and there are no legitimate reasons for being tardy in submitting papers (therefore, running out of ink, disk failure, and the like are NOT adequate reasons for late submissions). It is advisable to make back-up copies of your work on disks, regularly! Students failure to do so should not be taken as a license for leniency on deadlines.
3. Class Participation: As there are no exams to be taken in this class, participation in discussions serves as a means by which evaluation of student comprehension of the readings. There may be times when students are required to work in groups during class time and that demands equal efforts among all students. Those who slack or regularly expect other students to “carry” them in this context should be aware that this strategy will negatively influence grades. Class attendance is mandatory and monitored with daily sign-in sheets. Three unexcused absences are permitted throughout the semester. More than three will negatively influence grades. Class participation is evaluated based on attendance records, quality of contributions to class discussions and attitudes with which students approach this class.
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: The University·s official policy on academic integrity is in effect in this course, as in all other courses! All students must give their own answers in all classwork, quizzes, papers, and examinations without help from any source not duly credited. Written material is to be original work (student·s own compositions), and appropriate credit must be given to outside sources from which ideas, language, or quotations are derived. Suspected academic misconduct will be reported to the Provost·s office with a recommendation of course failure and/or dismissal from the University.
MINIMUM GRADE REQUIREMENT: It is the student·s responsibility to be familiar with minimum grade requirements for Criminology majors. A grade of “C” or better is required in any course to be used for major credit. “C-” does not count for these purposes. All students with questions should contact their advisors.
ACADEMIC SUPPORT INFORMATION: If students need course adaptations or accommodation because of a documented disability, please make an appointment with me as soon as possible. At any point during the semester, if students encounter difficulty with this course, or if students feel they could be performing at a higher level, consult with me. I understand that students experience difficulties in courses for a variety of reasons and am happy to make reasonable arrangements with students who have documented their need for accommodation. For problems with writing skills or time management, students should seek assistance at the Academic Support Center, 242 Luther Bonney (780.4470). Assistance is also available through the Counseling Center, 106 Payson Smith (780.4050) and the Disabled Student Services, 237 Luther Bonney Hall (780.4706).
This course requires an off-campus component. As this contact may expose students to potential health and safety risks, a policy has been sanctioned by the University that students must have health insurance at least equal to or better than that available from Student Health Services. Please contact Margaret Fahey (780.4221), Director of Student Academic Affairs and Administration, if there are any questions.
As compensation for the twenty hours of outside class time devoted to PBSL projects, there are no scheduled classes for two weeks. See reading/class schedule for further details.
Course Outline and Reading Schedule
Jan 18, 20 Introduction to Basic Concepts
Course Packet reading: Cohen, Stanley. 1985. Visions of Social Control. Introduction, Chapters 1, 2, and 7.
Jan 25, 27 Theory/History of Incarceration. Lecture-based on readings of Ignatieff and Foucault (optional readings on reserve) read: Oxford History of the Prison, chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Feb. 1, 3 Continuing Lectures based on Ignatieff, Foucault and Durkheim (optional readings on reserve)
Read: Oxford History of the Prison, chapters 8 and 10.
PBSL Step Two Submission (Feb 3)
Feb. 8, 10 Social Control of Women
Read: Punishment and Social Control, chapter 12; Oxford History of the Prison, chapter 11; Crime Control and Women, chapters 7 and 8.
PBSL Step Three Submission (Feb 10)
Feb 15, 17 Social Control of Young People
Read: Oxford History of the Prison, chapter 12; Responding to Troubled Youth, entire with emphasis on specific sections (TBA).
PBSL Step Four Submission (Feb 17)
Feb 22, 24 Winter Break
Feb 29, Mar 2 Policing and Social Control
Read: Punishment and Social Control, chapters 7 and 8; Crime Control and Women, chapters 4 and 6.
Course Packet: Chambliss, William. 1994. “Policing the Ghetto Underclass: The Politics of Law and Law Enforcement.” Social Problems: 41: 177 – 194.
Mar 7 Three Strikes Policies and Boot Camps
Read: Crime Control and Women, chapters 1 and 3.
Mar 9 The Death Penalty – Lecture/Discussion, no reading.
Mar 14, 16 Contemporary Problems and “solutions”
Read: Punishment and Social Control, chapters 3, 4, and 9.
Mar 21, 23 Compensation Time off for PBSL projects.
Mar 28, 30 Spring Break _
April 4, 6 Discuss PBSL projects, no readings
PBSL Step Six: individual portfolios and group papers (April 6).
April 11, 13 Republican Criminology and Restorative Justice
Read: Sheingold, S., T. Olson and J. Pershing. 1994. “Sexual Violence, Victim Advocacy, and Republican Criminology: Washington State·s Community Protection Act.” Law and Society Review 28: 729-763.;
Braithwaite, J. and M. Pettit. 1994. “Republican Criminology and Victim Advocacy.” Law and Society Review 28: 765 – 776.;
Daly, K. 1994. “Comment: Men·s Violence, Victim Advocacy and Feminist Redress.” Law and Society Review 28: 777- 786.
Braithwaite, J. 1989. Crime, Shame and Reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press, pages 84-107
Braithwaite, J. and S. Mugford. 1994. “Conditions of Successful Reintegration Ceremonies: Dealing with Juvenile Offenders.” British Journal of Criminology 34: 139 – 171
Blagg, H. 1997. “A Just Measure of Shame? Aboriginal Youth and Conferencing in Australia.” British Journal of Criminology 37: 481- 506.
April 18, 20 Family Group Conferences
Read: Family Group Conferences, entire with emphasis on selections (TBA).; Crime Control and Women, chapter 9
April 25, 27 Compensation Time Off
May 2, 4 Moral Pragmatism revisited
May 4 Policy Term Papers Due.
Professor: Dr. Kimberly Cook
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