Global Civic Engagement
Significant theoretical argument and research has been central to the development of thinking on global citizenship within GSL. We list these pieces immediately below and offer article abstracts farther down the page. Every effort is made to list the abstracts in the same order as the pieces are listed above (generally by most recent publication). The list developed here is listed chronologically in reverse-order, to show the conceptual development and research foundation in this growing field. We kindly request that any individuals interested in adding to this wiki do so by following the guidelines we have established.
Peer Reviewed Articles:
- García, N. A., & Longo, N. V. (2017). Doing More with Less: Civic Practices for Longer-Term Impact in Global Service-Learning. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XXIX(2), 35-50.
- Chance, L. (2016) [Review of the book Putting the Local in Global Education by Neal Sobania]. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(2), 55-60.
- Keith, N. Z. (2016). Cultivating Practitioners of Democratic Civic Engagement. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 23(1), 15-36.
- Rathburn, M. & Lexier, R. (2016). Global citizenship in Canadian Universities: A new framework. Journal of global citizenship and equity education, 5(1), 1 – 24.
- Garcia, N. A., & Longo, N. V. (2015). Community Voices: Integrating Local and International Partnerships through Storytelling. Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, 6(2), 1-18.
- Jacoby, B. (2015). Taking Campus-Community Partnerships to the Next Level through Border-Crossing and Democratic Engagement. [Review of the book Engaging in Social Partnerships: Democratic Practices for Campus-Community Partnerships by Novella Zell Keith]. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(1), 140-146.
- Morton, K., & Bergbauer, S. (2015). A Case for Community: Starting with Relationships and Prioritizing Community as Method in Service Learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(1), 18-31.
- Gordon, D. (2014). Curriculum integration versus educating for global citizenship: A (disciplinary) view from the international relations classroom. Frontiers: the Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. XXIV, 60-72.
- Hartman, E. (2014). Educating for global citizenship: A theoretical account and quantitative analysis. American Democracy Project eJournal of Public Affairs, 3(1) Abstract
- Hovland, K. (2014). Global learning: Defining, designing, demonstrating. American Association of Colleges and Universities.
- Hammersley, L. A. (2013). Volunteer tourism: building effective relationships of understanding. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Abstract
- Kliewer, B. W. (2013). Why the civic engagement movement cannot achieve democratic and justice aims. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(2), 72-79. Abstract
- Kronick, R., & Cunningham, R. (2013).Service-learning: some academic and community recommendations. Abstract
- Burkhardt, J. C., & Joslin, J. (2012). “To serve a larger purpose”: engagement for democracy and transformation of higher education. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Fall, 18(2), 72-75. Abstract
- Favish, J., McMillan, J., & Ngcelwane, S. (2012).Developing a strategic approach to social responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 16(4), 37-58. Abstract
- Hollister, R., Pollock, J., Gearan, M., Stroud, S., Reid, J., & Babcock, E. (2012). The tallories network: A global coalition of engaged universities. Abstract
- Talwalker, C. (2012). What kind of global citizen is the student volunteer? Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education, 2(2), 21-40. Abstract
- Campus Compact. (2011). Deepening the roots of civic engagement. 2011 Annual membership survey: Executive summary. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://www.compact.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/2011-Annual-Survey-Executive-Summary.pdf Abstract
- McBride, A. M., & Lough, B. J. (2010). Access to international volunteering. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 21(2), 195-208. Abstract
- Morais, D. B., & Ogden A. C. (2010). Initial development and validation of the global citizenship scale. Journal of Studies in International Education. Abstract
- Savicki, V. (2010). Implications of Early Sociocultural Adaptation for Study Abroad Students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. 19, 205-223. Abstract
- Woolf, M. (2010). Another Mishegas: Global Citizenship. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 19, 47- 60. Abstract
- Battistoni, R. M., Longo, N. V., & Jayanandhan, S. R. (2009). Acting locally in a flat world: Global citizenship and the democratic practice of service-learning. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 13(2), 89-108. Abstract
- Dolby, N. (2008). Global Citizenship and Study Abroad: A Comparative Study of American and Australian Undergraduates. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 17, 51-67. Abstract
- Hartman, E. (2008). Educating for global citizenship through service-learning: A theoretical account and curricular evaluation. Dissertation. Abstract
- Zemach-Bersin, T. (2008). A student’s excursion into ‘global citizenship’. Chronicle of Higher Education. 7 Mar 2008.
- Hunter, B., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. C. (2006). What does it mean to be globally competent? Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3). Abstract
- Schattle, H. (2005). Communicating global citizenship: Multiple discourses beyond the academy. Citizenship Studies, 9(2), 119-33. Abstract
- Wood, M. (2003). From service to solidarity: Engaged education and democratic globalization. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 8(2), 165-181. Abstract
- Lutterman-Aguilar, A. & Gingerich, O. (2002). Experiential Pedagogy for Study Abroad: Educating for Global Citizenship. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8, 41-82. Abstract
- Kahne, J., Westheimer, J., & Rogers, B. (2000). Service-learning and citizenship: Directions for research. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Fall, 42-51. Abstract
- Jischke, M. C. (1998). The land-grant mission and international outreach. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 3(3), 3-9.
- Noel, J.C. & Henson, J.B. (1998). International outreach: Requirement for future success in higher education. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 3(3), 20-31.
- Peterson, N. J. (1998). The challenges of the new global landscape and university international outreach programs. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 3(3), 42-48.
- Zorn, C. (1996). The long-term impact on nursing students of participating in international education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 12(2), 106. Abstract
- Illich, I. (1990). To hell with good intentions. Combining Service and Learning: A Resource Book for Community and Public Service. 1, 314–320.
- Sobania, N. W. (2015). Putting the local in global education: Models for transformative learning through domestic off-campus programs. Sterling, VA: Stylus. Summary
- Hartman, E., Kiely, R., Boettcher, C., & Friedrichs, J. (Under Contract, 2012). Building a better world: The pedagogy and practice of global service-learning. Sterling, CA: Stylus/Kumerian Press.
- Slimbach, R. (2010). Becoming world wise: A guide to global learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus. Summary
- Lewin, R. (2009). The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship. New York: Routledge.
- Davis, A. (2006). The Civically Engaged Reader: A Diverse Collection of Short Provocative Readings on Civic Activity. Great Books Foundation.
- Banks, J. A. (2003). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Summary
- Falk, R. A. (2000). Human rights horizons: The pursuit of justice in a globalizing world. New York: Routledge. Summary
- Forester, J. (1999). The deliberative practitioner: Encouraging participatory planning processes. The MIT Press.
- Yates, M., & Youniss, J. (1999). Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Summary
- Nussbaum, M. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA. Summary
- Korten, D. (1990). Getting to the 21st century: Voluntary action and the global agenda. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
- Hartman, E. & Kiely, R. (2014). Does Tension in International Service-Learning Lead to Transformation? In Green, P.M., & Johnson, M, Crossing boundaries: tension and transformation in international service-learning (pp. 243-249). Sterling, VA: Stylus Pub.
- Kollman, P. & Morgan, R. (2014). International Service-Learning in Faith-Based Contexts. In Green, P.M., & Johnson, M, Crossing boundaries: tension and transformation in international service-learning (pp. 190-214). Sterling, VA: Stylus Pub.
- Herrmann, S. (2011). Holding on to Transformation. In Porfilio, B. J., & Hickman, H, Critical service-learning as revolutionary pedagogy: A project of student agency in action (pp. 273-295). Charlotte, N.C: Information Age Pub.
- Risse, T., & Sikkink, K. (1999). “The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: Introduction.” In Risse, T., Ropp, S. C., & Sikkink, K., The power of human rights: International norms and domestic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hardiman, R. & Jackson, B. W. (1997). Conceptual foundations for social justice courses. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.) Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 16-29). New York: Routledge. Summary
Dissertations, Theses, and Other Works:
- Campus Compact. (2012). A praxis brief: Campus Compact’s response to a crucible moment: College learning and democracy’s future. Boston, MA: Campus Compact.
- The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement. (2012). A crucible moment: College learning and democracy’s future. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
- Hartman, E., & Kiely, R. (2004, September). Enacting global citizenship: Designing, implementing, and testing a curricular approach to address students’ uncertain response to the notion of global citizenship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Articles in Major Newspapers and Periodicals:
- Appiah, K. A. (2006). The case for contamination. The New York Times Magazine. 1 Jan 2008. 30.
- Campus Compact (2011). Deepening the roots of civic engagement. 2011 Annual Membership Survey. Found at: www.compact.org.
García, N. A., & Longo, N. V. (2017). Doing More with Less: Civic Practices for Longer-Term Impact in Global Service-Learning. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XXIX(2), 35-50.
This essay explores the potential value of short-term study abroad experiences within the unique framework of a new global service-learning program at Providence College which connects international with local engagement as a way to “do more with less.” The authors first introduce a typology for global service-learning, illustrating how this model fits within current approaches to international service-learning. They then describe a case study, Voices Across Borders, the global service-learning program which provides opportunities for students to engage with rural Nicaraguan and urban Providence youth through projects that harness the power of storytelling to make connections across borders. Based on the lessons from this effort, the essay offers a set of civic practices that can support the longer-term impact of short-term global service-learning, including i) fostering storytelling across borders; ii) cultivating students as partners; iii) developing reciprocal community partnerships; and iv) creating public work, visual, auditory or performing public artifacts. After describing the challenges for short-term international engagement, the authors conclude that global service-learning initiatives might more appropriately be focused on collaborative learning, rather than service, as a way of thinking more comprehensively about the entire global “ecology of education” which links learning at the international and local levels.
Chance, L. (2016) [Review of the book Putting the Local in Global Education by Neal Sobania]. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(2), 55-60.
A review on Neal Sobania’s book, “Putting the Local in Global Education”. The book itself presents models for domestic, immersive programs that will achieve global learning goals with those who do not study abroad.
Keith, N. Z. (2016). Cultivating Practitioners of Democratic Civic Engagement. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 23(1), 15-36.
How can we support campus-based practitioners of civic and community engagement in moving from normalized engagement toward practices that engage others democratically and respectfully across borders created by social race, class, gender, status, and other markers of difference? The article presents a framework derived from practice theory, a social science perspective that has influenced professional and organizational studies. The framework, which is meant as an aid for practice, integrates Bourdieu’s habitus, field, and capital with the theory of practical wisdom or phronesis. Bourdieu helps us understand how normal practice is constituted while phronesis provides the tools to consider practice that is ethical, democratic, border-crossing, and wise. Two mini-cases drawn from a graduate and an undergraduate course in urban education feature engaged practitioners in school settings and provide illustrations for the theory. The concluding section discusses implications of this way of framing the cultivation of community-engaged practitioners for the practice of reflection, course design, and research.
Garcia, N. A., & Longo, N. V. (2015). Community Voices: Integrating Local and International Partnerships through Storytelling. Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, 6(2), 1-1
This essay describes a new global service-learning project focused on integrating local and international partnerships through storytelling. Providence College faculty and students partnered with a local organization, CityArts, and an international organization, Waves of Hope, to empower young people to share their stories through a community lens. Using art and literacy in transnational contexts, the voices and images depict beauty and justice in communities, while also representing a more collaborative model of engagement.
Jacoby, B. (2015). Taking Campus-Community Partnerships to the Next Level through Border-Crossing and Democratic Engagement. [Review of the book Engaging in Social Partnerships: Democratic Practices for Campus-Community Partnerships by Novella Zell Keith]. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(1), 140-146.
This review essay focuses on the book, “Engaging in Social Partnerships: Democratic Practices for Campus-Community Partnerships” by Novella Zell Keith. The book centers on “collaborations that intentionally cross borders not only between organizations but also those of ‘class, race, ethnicity, culture.'”
Morton, K., & Bergbauer, S. (2015). A Case for Community: Starting with Relationships and Prioritizing Community as Method in Service Learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 22(1), 18-31.
This paper describes an eight-year service-learning experiment that created four distinct spaces in which campus and community members meet, reflect, and act together. This work explores the tensions between traditional and critical service-learning, and points to the importance of building relationships with members of local communities and nurturing shared community as a way for service-learning to begin realizing its civic engagement and social justice objectives. It addresses issues of power and meaning making. It presents a theory of community that suggests the connections between civic engagement and social justice with the practices of hospitality, compassion, listening, and reflection across social and cultural boundaries.
Hartman, E. (2014). Educating for global citizenship: A theoretical account and quantitative analysis. American Democracy Project eJournal of Public Affairs, 3(1)
Universities regularly suggest that they are educating for global citizenship. Yet global citizenship is rarely defined with precision, and the process for encouraging global citizenship is often unclear. This article examines a pedagogical effort to encourage global citizenship through global service-learning (GSL) courses offered by a nonprofit/university partnership. A quantitative instrument examined students’ shifts in respect to global civic engagement and awareness. The study compared students in three categories: 1) a typical composition course on campus; 2) GSL courses without the global citizenship curriculum; and 3) GSL courses that include the global citizenship curriculum. The results suggest significant gains in global civic engagement and awareness occur only in the context of a carefully constructed, deliberate global citizenship curriculum in addition to exposure to community-driven GSL.
Hammersley, L. A. (2013). Volunteer tourism: building effective relationships of understanding. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
This paper looks at a key problem in some areas of volunteer tourism, a now fastgrowing model of alternative tourism and alternative development. Combining volunteering with international travel, cultural exchange and learning objectives, volunteer tourism can educate volunteers and build relationships of understanding between diverse people and places. However, the ways volunteers make sense of their experience may actually reinforce cultural stereotypes that perpetuate colonialistic divisions of “us” and “them”. Some have argued that projects need a more structured educational approach if volunteers are to learn anything of personal or social value. However, little research has studied the role of volunteer-sending organizations (VSO) in facilitating volunteer understanding of the complex and relational processes of poverty, globalization and inequality. This paper explores ways to improve the educational potential of programs through pre-departure and debrief sessions. In-depth faceto-face and email interviews reveal participants’ experiences of volunteering in Vanuatu with an Australian-based VSO. Conclusions suggest that if short-term placements are to foster meaningful participatory action based on solidarity, mutual learning and relationship-building, the educative methodology adopted needs to occur throughout the volunteer process, pre-, during- and post-project while also bringing a pedagogical and developmental perspective to its practice.
Kliewer, B. W. (2013). Why the civic engagement movement cannot achieve democratic and justice aims. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(2), 72-79.
Many institutions of higher education have embraced a commitment to civic engagement, usually through service-learning courses or faculty community-engaged scholarship (Sandmann, Thornton, & Jaeger, 2009). However, our communities still confront many of the same injustices and inequalities that inspired the contemporary civic engagement movement. This raises an interesting question for civic engagement scholars: Given the degree to which the civic engagement field has been institutionalized in higher education, why has the field failed to achieve clearly defined democratic and justice aims?
Kronick, R., & Cunningham, R. (2013). Service-learning: some academic and community recommendations.
Civic engagement, service-learning, and university-assisted community schools are strong forces in making universities, as anchor institutions, engaged and responsible within their spheres of influence. By helping solve social problems, universities engage in the highest form of learning, come to understand social issues and problems, and escape the problem of inert knowledge, knowledge that is valuable only in a classroom.
Burkhardt, J. C., & Joslin, J. (2012) “To serve a larger purpose”: Engagement for democracy and transformation of higher education. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Fall, 18(2), 72-75.
Favish, J., McMillan, J., & Ngcelwane, S. (2012). Developing a strategic approach to social responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. 16(4), 37-58.
Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a “social responsiveness” initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town colleagues, illustrates the possibilities and complexities of this work in southern Africa. While strongly contextualized there, it also illustrates how the University of Cape Town has both benefited from and contributed to the broader international discussions taking place through TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network), the Talloires Network, and other means.
Hollister, R., Pollock, J., Gearan, M., Stroud, S., Reid, J., & Babcock, E. (2012).The tallories network: A global coalition of engaged universities. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 16(4), 81-101.
This article describes and analyzes the origins, work to date, and future of the Talloires Network, an international association of institutions committed to strengthening the civic roles and social responsibilities of higher education. Included are reflections on the network’s strategies for advancing civic engagement in higher education globally, with particular attention to both the successes and the limitations of these strategies. The experience of the network to date may help to illuminate opportunities and challenges with respect to international dimensions of university civic engagement.
Talwalker, C. (2012). What kind of global citizen is the student volunteer?. Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education, 2(2), 21-40.
College students in the United States, and other countries of the Global North, are signing up in growing numbers to volunteer with aid and human rights organizations around the world (and also domestically). Yet in so doing, many students experience their best intentions muddied by the inefficiencies or profit-motives of the aid world volunteer industry. To explore the dilemmas raised both for students and for faculty and staff supporting them, this essay reaches beyond the instrumentality of the aid world (its focus on doing something concrete and good) to other possible outcomes of the encounters between volunteers, aid workers, and aid beneficiaries. I conceive of the “volunteer-aid beneficiary” encounter in ways that draw simultaneously on the anthropological approach to “gift economies” as well as related concepts and arguments made by social psychologists, a philosopher, and a literary critic. The goal here is to contribute to the pedagogy supporting college students’ service learning or volunteer experiences (mostly international, but also domestic) and to explore possible meanings of the term “global citizenship” in this context. I argue for the need to foreground the political selfhood of aid beneficiaries, alongside (or not merely) their economic or biological selfhood.
Campus Compact. (2011). Deepening the roots of civic engagement. 2011 Annual membership survey: Executive summary. Retrieved February 22, 2012 fromhttp://www.compact.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/2011-Annual-Survey-Executive-Summary.pdf
Campus Compact has supported the efforts of campuses to develop an engaged academy and promote the public purposes of higher education for more than 25 years. As demonstrated by the annual survey of Campus Compact’s nearly 1,200 member colleges and universities, this effort continues to pay off: Each year more students on more campuses are engaging with their communities in ways that create strong partnerships and encourage growth and development. These experiences reinforce academic learning and encourage lifelong civic habits.
Tracking the numbers of civically engaged students—and the faculty and staff who support them—is a great starting point for understanding campus activity. However, Campus Compact believes it is more important to know how this work is changing the fabric of institutions and of higher education.
The 2011 annual survey shows a deepening of engagement work as campuses increasingly put in place measures such as including service and civic knowledge in strategic plans, providing resources and rewards for faculty involvement, increasing the community’s voice in decision making, and considering service in admissions and scholarships.
These measures combine to create a culture of engagement that facilitates meaningful campus-community connections and reinforces higher education’s role in preparing future leaders to tackle pressing issues. To ensure that this role is fulfilled, however, campuses need to focus not only on the extent of this work, but also on its effectiveness.
This year’s survey has identified a major gap in campuses’ ability to assess the impact of engaged work on the community and on student learning. Putting in place assessment measures will deepen the roots of engagement by allowing campuses to identify strengths and weaknesses in their current programs. Formal processes can ensure continuous improvement and bolster both internal and external support for this work.
McBride, A. M. & Lough, B. J. (2010). Access to international volunteering. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 21(2), 195-208.
Using the 2005 U.S. Current Population Survey, we identify the demographic profile of international volunteers from the United States. According to logistic regression results, those most likely to volunteer internationally are young, white, male, highly educated, foreign-born individuals without dependent children in the home and not employed full time. These findings are discussed through the lens of access and inclusion, examining the possible influences of individual choice and programmatic structure on this demographic profile. Implications are drawn for future research.
Morais, D. B., & Ogden A. C. (2010). Initial development and validation of the global citizenship scale. Journal of Studies in International Education.
The purpose of this article is to report on the initial development of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated scale to measure global citizenship. The methodology employed is multi-faceted, including two expert face validity trials, extensive exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with multiple datasets, and a series of three small-group interviews utilizing nominal group technique to verify the scope of the global citizenship construct. The findings provide support for a three-dimensional Global Citizenship Scale that encompasses social responsibility, global competence, and global civic engagement. Global competence and global civic engagement are both strong dimensions of global citizenship, and each has three reliable subdimensions that add further refinement to the construct. Social responsibility proves to be a dimension of global citizenship with a less clearly defined structure. The Global Citizenship Scale and its conceptual framework have important implications for education abroad outcomes research and practice.
Savicki, V. (2010). Implications of Early Sociocultural Adaptation for Study Abroad Students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. 19, 205-223.
Due to globalization, the field of international education will be experiencing an increasing number of students participating in study abroad programs. The author highlights the importance of focusing on helping students adapt to a foreign culture and setting as this will become a pressing issue. The study that the author mentions focuses on the relationship between sociocultural and psychological adaptation, specifically looking at the ease of fitting in into a new culture with psychological outcomes such stress. The study found that the quality of the study abroad experience matters in the sociocultural adaptation. The author also hopes to clarify the definition of sociocultural adaptation in order to provide educators, professionals, and those working with study abroad students a more effective way of helping students immersing themselves in foreign cultures.
The purpose of this article is to provide another perspective on the phrase and idea of a “global citizen.” The phrase global citizen has become prevalent in international education, the author specifically cites study abroad programs that use this idea, as well as students or professionals themselves that use this phrase as a means of self-description. When used in personal context, global citizen may imply a person with an open mind, actively and intellectually engaged with other cultures, well aware of the interdependence of countries, as well as appreciative of cultural and other differences between people and countries. The author however suggests that these characteristics describe a good citizen, rather than a global citizen. In order to be a citizen there must be membership, and sharing beliefs in international values and affairs is not obligatory nor is it a form of a membership. Thus the author argues that the adjective “global” (in global citizen) is what Leo Rosten in his The New Joys of Yiddish would call a mishegas, or madness.
Battistoni, R. M., Longo, N. V., & Jayanandhan, S. R. (2009). Acting locally in a flat world: Global citizenship and the democratic practice of service-learning. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 13(2), 89-108.
This article suggests ways to frame the democratic practice of service-learning in the context of a global society, and reports on emerging efforts at three universities to act globally through local community engagement. The article concludes with practical lessons for promoting global citizenship through service-learning in higher education. Democracy must begin at home, and its home is the neighborly community. —John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems
The world is being flattened. I didn’t start it and you can’t stop it, except at a great cost to human development and your own future. —Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat
Dolby, N. (2008). Global Citizenship and Study Abroad: A Comparative Study of American and Australian Undergraduates. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. 17, 51-67.
Among the many benefits of studying abroad is coming back with an expanded knowledge of politics, economics, society, and culture. Many universities use “global citizenship” in their mission statements or study abroad webpages. However, the increased focus on global citizenship is not only for study abroad programs, but rather a response to an increasingly globalized world. However, the author argues that “global citizenship” is not clearly defined, and through examining two groups of undergraduate study abroad students from United States and Australian universities, the author argues for a more complex way of looking at national identity and global citizenship as the meaning of global citizenship differs nation by nation.
Hartman, E. (2008). Educating for global citizenship through service-learning: A theoretical account and curricular evaluation. Dissertation.
The last decade has witnessed substantial increases in US university study abroad programming. Related, there has been a demonstrable spike in university administrators and faculty members suggesting that their institutions prepare students for global citizenship. Yet few institutions have offered a clear conceptualization of what global citizenship is, how they educate for it, or how they measure their progress in that effort. This dissertation addresses the relative dearth of applicable theoretical constructs by offering one such construct, suggesting the specific educative process by which it may be encouraged, and discussing initial efforts evaluating its success. Its three primary contributions are: (1) a particular articulation of global citizenship that draws on existing theoretical approaches while insisting on integration with or development of strong mechanisms for application, (2) clarification of the educative process by which that articulation and practice of global citizenship may be encouraged, and (3) the development and testing of a quantitative instrument for better understanding and evaluating global citizenship and civic engagement. A pre- and post- survey is employed to develop an index of global civic engagement and awareness measures among students (1) not participating in global service-learning, (2) participating in global service-learning without a deliberate global citizenship education component, and (3) participating in global service-learning with clear attention to the integration of a global citizenship curriculum. The findings, buttressed by analysis of related qualitative data, suggest that integration of a carefully developed and articulated theoretical and practical approach to global citizenship education is essential if universities are to be successful in their efforts to create global citizens. Perhaps less intuitive and more alarming, the findings indicate that exposure to study abroad programming absent deliberate global citizenship education efforts may serve to merely reinforce stereotypes, create situations where severe cultural shock and withdrawal are likely experiences, and otherwise serve to cause young US citizens to shrink from rather than engage with the world. Taken as a whole, the analysis suggests the outcomes of many efforts to globalize campuses and create global citizens are unclear at best and that clearer conceptualizations, educative processes, and evaluation efforts are needed.
Hunter, B., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. C. (2006). What does it mean to be globally competent? Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3).
To contribute to the valuable and ongoing debate regarding the definition of global citizenship and global competency, this study proposes a definition developed through the use of a Delphi Technique involving human resource managers at top transnational corporations, senior international educators, United Nations officials, inter-cultural trainers, and foreign government officers. This definition is used as the foundation for the development of a survey to determine the knowledge, skills, and attitudes and experiences necessary to be considered globally competent. The survey was sent to 133 representatives from universities that self-nominated for recognition in the “Profiles of Success at Colleges and Universities—Internationalizing the Campus 2003” (NAFSA: Association of International Educators publication) and the transnational corporation human resource officials serving as members of the National Foreign Trade Council’s Expatriate Management Committee and Global Mobility Roundtable. Results are reported and discussed, and a proposed curricular plan is presented based on the findings.
Schattle, H. (2005). Communicating Global Citizenship: Multiple Discourses beyond the Academy. Citizenship Studies, 9 (2), 119-33.
This article demonstrates that notions of “global citizenship”, as communicated beyond academic debates in political theory and sociology, can be situated within two overarching discourses: a civic republican discourse that emphasizes concepts such as awareness, responsibility, participation and cross-cultural empathy, and a libertarian discourse that emphasizes international mobility and competitiveness. Within each of these discourses, multiple understandings of citizen voice can be identified. Exploring how myriad ways of thinking related to “global citizenship” are springing forth in public debate serves to illustrate new ways in which a wide variety of political, social and economic actors are reflecting upon the meaning of voice and citizenship in the context of increasing public recognition of global interdependence. Not only has “global citizenship” emerged as a variant within the concept of citizenship, but the concept of “global citizenship” contains many variants and sources of internal division. How the concept of “global citizenship” continues to evolve in public discourse, especially in response to watershed events, promises to remain a fruitful line of inquiry for years to come.
Wood, M. (2003). From service to solidarity: Engaged education and democratic globalization. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 8(2), 165-181.
In this essay, I argue that the market-model university undermines the engaged education movement by supporting a mode of global organization that rewards values and practices opposed to those of social justice, human rights, ecological sustainability, and global community. On the basis of this argument, I propose that we may achieve the goals of the engaged education movement by working to construct a relational economy or economic democracy. Borrowing from Suzanne C. Toton, I also propose that we move from conceptualizing educational engagement as service to conceptualizing it as solidarity. Finally, I propose that our work be oriented less toward educating individuals to be good citizens and more toward educating them to be what Martin Luther King, Jr., describes as transformed non-conformists, persons committed to and capable of building a society that affirms the dignity of all persons by ensuring that every individual is able to enjoy a dignified life.
Lutterman-Aguilar, A., & Gingerich, O. (2002). Experiential Pedagogy for Study Abroad: Educating for Global Citizenship. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8, 41-82.
The authors argue that the study abroad experience alone does not lead to global citizenship, it is rather the program design with the goal of putting into practice experiential learning that study programs can be successful in developing a sense of global citizenship in their students. Ongoing assessment of international experiential education is needed to improve the quality of the study abroad programs and make sure that students are achieving their learning goals. The authors suggest for the need of two kinds of assessments: assessment of student-learning and of the educational study abroad program.
Zorn, C. (1996). The long-term impact on nursing students of participating in international education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 12(2), 106.
Internationalizing the nursing curriculum is essential to the education of the nurse professional prepared for the rapidly changing challenges of the 21st century. Despite recognition of this essential need, the long-term effects of international education on nursing students have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term impact of study abroad experiences on baccalaureate graduates. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from 27 alumni (88 per cent response rate) who completed the International Education Survey. Although the impact was found to decrease over time, respondents reported the highest impact in enhanced international perspective and increased personal development; lower impact was reported in the professional nurse role and intellectual development dimensions. Students who participated in longer programs (12 to 16 weeks) reported higher long-term impact than those participating in 3- to 4-week programs. Respondents’ age at the time of the international education was positively correlated with personal development. No association was found between the respondents’ year in college in which they participated and reported long-term impact. This study is a contribution to the efforts of those who are committed to making nursing education relevant in a global society.
Sobania, N. W. (2015). Putting the local in global education: Models for transformative learning through domestic off-campus programs. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
This book presents both the rationale for and examples of “study away”, an inclusive concept that embraces study abroad while advocating for a wide variety of domestic study programs, including community-based education programs that employ academic service-learning and internships.
With the growing diversification―regionally, demographically, culturally, and socio-economically―of developed economies such as the US, the local is potentially a “doorstep to the planet” and presents opportunities for global learning. Moreover, study away programs can address many of the problematic issues associated with study abroad, such as access, finance, participation, health and safety, and faculty support. Between lower costs, the potential to increase the participation of student cohorts typically under-represented in study abroad, the lowering of language barriers, and the engagement of faculty whose disciplines focus on domestic issues, study at home can greatly expand the reach of global learning.
The book is intended for study abroad professionals, multicultural educators, student affairs professionals, alternative spring break directors, and higher education administrators concerned about affordably expanding global education opportunities.
Slimbach, R. (2010). Becoming world wise: A guide to global learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
As world travel is growing exponentially, “alternative” travel has grown apace: from ecotourism, gap years, short-term mission trips, cultural travel-study tours, and foreign language study, to college-level study abroad, “voluntourism”, and international service-learning.
This book is intended to help the new generation of ethical and educational travelers make the most of their international experience, and show them how to broaden their cultural horizons while also making a contribution to their host community.
This book guides independent and purposeful learners considering destinations off the “beaten path” on connecting with a wider world. Whether traveling on their own, or as part of a group arranged by an educational institution, humanitarian organization, or congregation, this book will enable them to make their international encounter rewarding, authentic, enriching, and learning-oriented.
This book draws on the author’s extensive travel and many years of guiding college students’ global learning. Richard Slimbach offers a comprehensive framework for pre-field preparation that includes, but goes beyond, discussions of packing lists and assorted “do’s and don’ts” to consider the ultimate purposes and practical learning strategies needed to enter deeply into a host culture. It also features an in-depth look at the post-sojourn process, helping the reader integrate the experiences and insights from the field into her or his studies and personal life. This book constitutes a vital road map for anyone intent on having their whole being—body, mind, and heart—stretched through the intercultural experience.
Becoming World Wise offers an integrated approach to cross-cultural learning aimed at transforming our consciousness while also contributing to the flourishing of the communities that host us. While primarily intended for foreign study and service situations, the ideas are just as relevant to intercultural learning within domestic settings. In a “globalized” world, diverse cultures intermingle near and far, at home and abroad.
Banks, J. A. (2003). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
The increasing ethnic, racial, cultural, religious, and language diversity in nations throughout the world is forcing educators and policymakers to rethink existing notions of citizenship and nationality. To experience cultural democracy and freedom, a nation must be unified around a set of democratic values such as justice and equality that balance unity and diversity and protect the rights of diverse groups. Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives brings together in one comprehensive volume a group of international experts on the topic of diversity and citizenship education. These experts discuss and identify the shared issues and possibilities that exist when educating for national unity and cultural diversity. Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives presents compelling case studies and examples of successful programs and practices from twelve nations, discusses problems that arise when societies are highly stratified along race, cultural, and class lines, and describes guidelines and benchmarks that practicing educators can use to structure citizenship education programs that balance unity and diversity. The book covers a broad range of issues and includes vital information on such topics as
- Migration, citizenship, and education
- The challenge of racialized citizenship in the United States
- The contribution of the struggles by Indians and Blacks for citizenship and recognition in Brazil
- Crises of citizenship education and ethnic issues in Germany, Russia, and South Africa
- Conflicts between religious and ethnic factions
- Diversity, globalization, and democratic education
Falk, R. A. (2000). Human rights horizons: The pursuit of justice in a globalizing world. New York: Routledge.
In Human Rights Horizons, one of the world’s foremost authorities on human rights and international relations maps out the way to a more just and human global society. Borders are being erased; democracy and capitalism are spreading. The world is rapidly changing, and these changes are opening the door for the promotion of human rights to become and integral part of worldwide politics and law.In his provocative new book, Falk discusses the borderline between the promotion of human rights and the promotion of interventionist and coercive diplomacy. Can the US and the UN find an acceptable balance between unnecessary, protracted violence (Somalia) and simply letting genocide spread (Rwanda)? While looking at specific cases, Falk also sheds important new light on non-Western attitudes toward human rights, the challenge of genocidal politics, the intersection of morality and global security, and the pursuit of international justice. Thoughtful and very accessibly written, Human Rights Horizons clearly presents a path to an original new humanitarian policy for the 21st century.
Kahne, J., Westheimer, J., & Rogers, B. (2000). Service-learning and citizenship: Directions for research. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Fall, 42-51.
This essay highlights three areas of research that can deepen our understanding of the relationship between service learning and citizenship in colleges and universities. First, we discuss the need to understand the relationship between different approaches to service learning and different conceptions of “good” citizenship. Second, we discuss the need to connect research on service learning to scholarly issues and frameworks from related academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss the need to examine the relationship between the civic mission of higher education institutions and the design, implementation, and impact of curriculum designed to further civic goals (including service learning).
Yates, M., & Youniss, J. (1999). Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
This book brings together an international collection of essays that describes the state of community participation among the world’s youth. Authors from around the globe use fresh empirical data to present portraits of contemporary youths constructing their civic identities through such means as community service and political activism. The image of “Generation X” as socially disconnected and apathetic is contradicted by young people’s efforts to comprehend the complexities of society and to work toward the realization of social-moral ideals. The findings in this volume contribute to a theory of political socialization that bases youth’s understanding of political aspects of society and citizenship on participation in community and civic activities, rather than on the intake of abstract pieces of formal information. To this end, youth seek to resolve ideological tensions, such as in Northern Ireland and the Middle East; to overcome corrupting political practices, such as in Italy and Taiwan; to deal with disillusionment, such as in the emerging Eastern European nations; and to bridge barriers against youth’s meaningful participation in the working of society, such as in Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Researchers in a wide array of fields, including psychology, sociology, political science, and education will find this book to be a valuable resource.
Hardiman, R. & Jackson, B. W. (1997). Conceptual foundations for social justice courses. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.). Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 16-29). New York: Routledge.
For nearly a decade, Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice has been the definitive sourcebook of theoretical foundations and curricular frameworks for social justice teaching practice. This thoroughly revised second edition continues to provide teachers and facilitators with an accessible pedagogical approach to issues of oppression in classrooms. Building on the groundswell of interest in social justice education, the second edition offers coverage of current issues and controversies while preserving the hands-on format and inclusive content of the original.Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice presents a well-constructed foundation for engaging the complex and often daunting problems of discrimination and inequality in American society. This book includes a CD-ROM with extensive appendices for participant handouts and facilitator preparation.
Nussbaum, M. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
How can higher education today create a community of critical thinkers and searchers for truth that transcends the boundaries of class, gender, and nation? Martha C. Nussbaum, philosopher and classicist, argues that contemporary curricular reform is already producing such “citizens of the world” in its advocacy of diverse forms of cross-cultural studies. Her vigorous defense of “the new education” is rooted in Seneca’s ideal of the citizen who scrutinizes tradition critically and who respects the ability to reason wherever it is found–in rich or poor, native or foreigner, female or male.
Drawing on Socrates and the Stoics, Nussbaum establishes three core values of liberal education–critical self-examination, the ideal of the world citizen, and the development of the narrative imagination. Then, taking us into classrooms and campuses across the nation, including prominent research universities, small independent colleges, and religious institutions, she shows how these values are (and in some instances are not) being embodied in particular courses. She defends such burgeoning subject areas as gender, minority, and gay studies against charges of moral relativism and low standards, and underscores their dynamic and fundamental contribution to critical reasoning and world citizenship.
For Nussbaum, liberal education is alive and well on American campuses in the late twentieth century. It is not only viable, promising, and constructive, but it is essential to a democratic society. Taking up the challenge of conservative critics of academe, she argues persuasively that sustained reform in the aim and content of liberal education is the most vital and invigorating force in higher education today.
Illich, I. (1990). To hell with good intentions. Combining Service and Learning: A Resource Book for Community and Public Service. 1, 314–320.
An address by Monsignor Ivan Illich to the Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects (CIASP) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, on April 20, 1968. In his usual biting and sometimes sarcastic style, Illich goes to the heart of the deep dangers of paternalism inherent in any voluntary service activity, but especially in any international service “mission.” Parts of the speech are outdated and must be viewed in the historical context of 1968 when it was delivered, but the entire speech is retained for the full impact of his point and at Ivan Illich’s request.
University of Maryland
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