Principles of Health Education

Professor and Chair of Health Science
Director of Community-University Partnership

The purpose of this course is to examine the philosophical, ethical and theoretical foundations of the professional practice of health education in school, community, work site and hospital settings, as well as in health promotion consultant activities. Students will be expected to develop their own philosophical, ethical and theoretical approach(s) to the field after becoming familiar with the literature related to the discipline and engaging in a service-learning project. The course does not fulfill the state health education requirement. Prerequisite: HSCI 120 or consent of the instructor.

To provide a state-of-the-art, conceptual framework for health education majors who seek careers in health education and to provide other health science and health-related majors, who will be using health education practices, to gain clear, succinct principles regarding the fields of health education, health promotion, and disease prevention. All students will gain a greater understanding of the theories, elements, practices and principles that contribute to the need for and the successful implementation of a wide range of health education activities.

By experiencing classroom, readings, and service-learning activities the student will be able to:

l. distinguish between several philosophical approaches to the professional practice of health education.
2. synthesize "state of the art" advances into their professional practice of health education.
3. employ the concept of holistic health into their definition of human health status.
4. convert current professional standards and ethics into their practice of professional health education.
5. integrate all of the dimensions of health into a holistic approach to their health education practice.
6. identify the most important goals and objectives of professional health education.
7. analyze at least six theoretical approaches to the professional practice of health education.
8. recognize the generic aspects of school, community, health care, corporate and work site health education.
9. explore the status of professional health education practices of several, specific health-related agencies.
10. integrate past health experiences into the development of a clear conceptualization of professional health education.
11. integrate the "year 2000 Health Objectives For The Nation" in to their personal philosophy and actual practice of health education.
12. arrive at a personal meaning of the concept of health and be able to clearly explain this definition to others.
13. differentiate between the notions of disease prevention, health promotion, health education and wellness enhancement.
14. appreciate a sense of professional identity for health educators and be able to explain this to other professionals and consumers.
15. identify the complexity of professional opportunities available to health education specialists.
16. identify and discuss the major issues confronting health education in the next 20 years.
17. identify and describe the seven areas of responsibility of all entry level health educator.
18. effectively advocate for health education activities and programs.
19. integrate effective health education practices into their individual health science careers.

1. Assigned Readings Materials:

    A. Read each of the chapters as assigned in PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION, (2nd edition), J. Thomas Butler, Morton Publishing Company, Englewood, Colorado. See the course outline for specific reading assignments).

B. Read all of the materials in FOUNDATIONS OF HEALTH EDUCATION, R. M. Eberst, Editor, Coyote Press, San Bernardino: 1999-00 (available in the Coyote Bookstore). Bring the book to class everyday and complete all assignments prior to class meetings.

C. Read the two assigned articles in FOUNDATIONS OF HEALTH EDUCATION (1999-008) as listed on the course outline.

Note: All students are expected to read the assigned chapters and articles prior to coming to class and should be ready to analyze and discuss the reading during the class discussion periods.

2. Mission of Health Education:
Each student is to develop a written, personal philosophical statement regarding the long-range mission of health education (maximum of 2 pages, typed double-spaced). The Mission Statement is to contain all of the following issues:

    A. MISSION STATEMENT: A description of the student's philosophy as to the long term, specific mission of health education. (e.g., complete the statement, "The mission of health education is to…."). This statement should describe the student's philosophy as to the global, long-range purpose(s) of all health education activities. Explain the major and most significant health aim(s) which will be achieved when comprehensive health education activities are effective.

B. HEALTH EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES: A description of the general educational approaches to be used to insure that this mission is fulfilled; Discuss the general educational approaches which should be employed to reach this mission? Explain what specific educational actions actually need to be accomplished to implement the mission.

Note: These are not teaching techniques, but the actual theoretical educational approaches you believe need to be used to reach your mission. Many of these approaches will be discussed in the class.

C. LIMITATIONS: A description of the general limitations health education faces. Discuss what are the most important barriers which limit the field from reaching its mission. These could be such things as cultural, economic, fiscal, political, philosophical, etc.

3. Professional Interviews:
Each student is to interview at least two (2) practicing professional health educators. These professionals must be actively working in one of the major health education settings (e.g., school/university, hospital, other health care setting, corporate, work site, community or governmental). At least 75% of the professional's time must be spent in the actual practice of health education and they must have formal academic training (a degree) in health education and must be CHES (Certified Health Education Specialist) Certified or at least be eligible and qualified to take the CHES examination.

    A. Oral Report: Each student is to provide a brief (3-5 minute) oral report in class regarding one of the professionals they interviewed. The oral report should include all of the following:
    l. Provide the Name, address and professional health education back-ground of the professional including their professional training (degrees/universities) in health education; year of CHES certification or why they are eligible for CHES.

    2. Provide a brief description of the professional setting (e.g., community, work site, health care, etc. (not the room or the building) in which the professional is currently working. Include the administrative unit/department and its placement within the organization.

    3. Provide a description of the professionals' personal philosophy of the mission of health education. (Be specific as to all the issues required in requirement #3, "Mission of Health Education," above;

    4. Discuss the professional's view as to the most important health education service(s) they personally provide and the population(s) they serve;

    5. Share the professional's view as to the future direction(s) of entire health education field(e.g., Where will the field be in ten years? What will health educators be doing more or less of? How will things be different? What will change? What will be the same?).

    6. Discuss the professional's view as the most important strengths and weaknesses of the entire health education field (what is being done well and what is done poorly?)

    7. Share your (the student's) personal reactions to the issues (1-6) discussed by the professional. Provide your analysis of the professional's ideas and opinions. Share how you agree or disagree with their thinking and observations and discuss why.

NOTE: The student is to do more than ask the professionals to answer questions related to the items above. Students are to probe the ideas and thinking of the professionals and seek some of their reasoning for their opinion. The purpose of this assignment is to understand as fully as possible the thinking of the professional and not just have them briefly respond to the several questions and issues listed above.

B. Written Reports:
Use a separate 5 X 8 (large) index card for each professional interviewed and submit a brief written summary including all of the following:

    1. Name and professional health education back-ground of each professional including their professional training (degrees and universities) in health education. Include the date of their CHES certification or why they are qualified to take the CHES examination.
    2. A listing of their business address, telephone, and the type of professional setting in which they work.

4. Service-Learning Experience: Each student is to work in an assigned group on a service-learning project related to the "Focus 92411" project. Each group is to review the "Focus 92411" Strategic Plan and the list of recent "desired outcomes" developed by the "Focus 92411" Board. The group must then agree on one area related to these two document in which to apply practical health education skills developed in HSCI 301. Each group is to contact at least one "Focus 92411" Board member or volunteer (See "Focus 92411" Directory of Members and Liaisons) to serve as a local mentor. The group is to complete each of the following as part of the service-learning project:

    A clear description of the purpose of the service- learning project, why it is seen as an important/needed project, and how it directly relates to one of the following five major focus areas of the CSUSB Community-University Partnerships; (see CUP Strategic Plan: 2000)

1. Economic Transformation;
2. Educational Quality of the Workforce and Citizenry;
Health Enhancement;
Community and Family Enhancement; and
5. Cultural and Arts Enhancement.

A list of at least two desired outcomes for the project which relate to one of the same areas listed in "a" above;
A clear description of the individual contributions of each group member (equivalent to 20 hours of contribution for each group member);
A clear description of how the project relates to at least three of the major learning objectives for HSCI 301;
A list of suggested "measures" to determine the success of the project;
A written "reflection," of at least three pages but no more than five pages, outlining each of the following:
Summary of the actual activities of the service-learning project;
Evaluation of how the experience directly related to HCSI 301 course goals and objectives;
Evaluation of how the experience related one or all of the major foci of Community-University Partnerships (see "a" above).
Evaluation of how the experience related to the student·s personal philosophy of health education;
Evaluation of how the experience is most likely to affect the student·s future career.
Advice to future students which will facilitate their future efforts with a similar experience.

5. Service-Learning Poster Presentation: Each group is to also present a 2.5 hour poster session for their service-learning project during the last week of the class. The poster should include material (photos, graphs, charts, etc.) describing the group's experience and each poster should minimally address the following elements:
1. Title of the Service-Learning project;
Name of each group member and the specific "Focus 92411" Mentor involved;
Summary of the actual activities of the service- learning project;

Each group will rotate all members at the poster to orally describe each of the following to all other members of the class. When not presenting, the remaining group members are to visit the other posters:
Evaluation of how the experience directly related to HCSI 301 course goals and objectives;
Evaluation of how the experience related one or all of the major foci of Community-University Partnerships (see "a" above).
?Evaluation of how the experience related to the student·s personal philosophy of health education;
Evaluation of how the experience is most likely to affect the student's future career.
Advice to future students which will facilitate their future efforts with a similar experience.

Poster Information: During the Poster Sessions, white poster boards will be placed in the Poster Section at in the hall outside the HSCI main office so that the attendees can read the displays and confer with the students and, if possible, the community mentor(s). The white boards are 3' W x 4' H. There will be one white board per HSCI group. The title of the project, names, and the project descriptions will be displayed at the top of the white board. The rest of the space will be for your group to display items describing the project. There is enough room on each board to display a maximum of 9 sheets of 8.5 x 11 paper. Each group will be responsible for preparing a summary of their project which includes all the items listed above. Please develop your presentation into a format that is well-organized, reader-friendly and attractive (e.g., include charts, pictures; use color; use bigger fonts (14 size or larger); put each of the specific areas on a separate sheet and consider using colored paper as backgrounds to highlight your major points. Groups will be provided a two by six foot table with a drape. If you like, you can supplement your presentation with additional brochures, handouts, etc. HSCI will provide clear tape but you might want to bring some of your own.

6. Class Participation and Discussion of the Readings:


Mission of Health Education – 20 Pts.
Professional Interviews-oral – 20 pts
Professional Interviews-Cards – 20 pts
Service Learning Project – 20 pts
Written Report – 20 pts
Poster – 20 pts
Class participation/attendance – 20 pts
Total: 100 pts

A = 93-100
A- = 90-92
B+ = 87-89
B = 83-86
B- = 80-82
C+ = 77-79
C = 73-76
C- = 70-72
D+ = 67-69
D = 63-66
D- = 60-62
F = less than 60

The grade symbols used at the University are as follows:
A Excellent 4.0
A- 3.7
B+ 3.3
B Good 3.0
B- 2.7
C+ 2.3
C Satisfactory 2.0
D+ 1.3
D Passing 1.0
D- 0.7
F Failing 0.0


ASSIGNMENT POLICY; Students are expected to submit assignments on the assigned dates unless other arrangements have been made with the instructor prior to the due date.

ATTENDANCE POLICY; Students are expected to attend and participate in every class meeting during the quarter. However, if it is necessary to miss a class, students are responsible for making up all information, concepts, etc., missed because of the absence. Students mission more than five (5) classes may be asked to drop the class.

Students arriving late to class are often a distraction to both the instructor and other students; therefore, make every effort to be in class on time.

There will be experiential learning situations (e.g. group activities) in this course; therefore, it will be to your advantage to attend all classes as these experiences are impossible to make-up.

EXTRA WORK POLICY; No extra credit work will be allowed. Students should make every effort to submit their very best work on the due date.


Andreasen, Alan r. MARKETING SOCIAL CHANGE. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA. 1995
Cleary, Helen P., Kichen, Jeffrey M., and Ensor, Phyllis, G., ADVANCING HEALTH THROUGH EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY APPROACH, Mayfield, Palo Alto, CA: 1985.
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Durbin, R.L., and Springall, W.H., Organization and Administration of Health Care: Theory, Practice, and Environment. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby Co., 1989.
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Gabriel, R., Program Evaluation: A Social Science Approach, NY: MSS Information Corp. 1992.
Girdano, D.A., OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROMOTION. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York: 1986.
Greenberg,Jerrold and Gold,Robert, THE HEALTH EDUCATION ETHICS BOOK. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Boston, 1992.
Hyner, Gerald C. and Melby, Christopher L., PRIORITIES FORHEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION. Eddie Bowers Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 1987.
Lee, P.R. and Estes, C.L., THE NATION'S HEALTH: FOURTHEDITION, Jones and Bartlett Pub., Boston: 1994.
McKenzie, James F. and Jurs, Jan L., PLANNING, IMPLEMENTING, AND EVALUATION HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS: A PRIMER. Macmillian Publishing Co., New York, 1993.
Patton, R.W., Corry, J.M. Gettman, L.R., and Schovee Graf, J. IMPLEMENTING HEALTH\FITNESS PROGRAMS. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL.: 1992.
Ross, Helen S., and Mico, Paul R., THEORY AND PRACTICE INHEALTH EDUCATION. Mayfield Publishing Co., Palo Alto, CA: 1996.
Shumaker, S.A., Schron, E.B., and Ockene, J. K., THE HANDBOOK OFHEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE. Springer Publishing Co., New York, 1990.
Soto, M. (Ed.), HEALTHY PEOPLE: 2000: CITIZENS CHART THECOURSE. Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 1990.
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Barbara Caron, Editor, "Service Matters: The Engaged Campus,"Campus Compact, Brown University Box 1975, Providence, RI, 02912, ISBN: 0-9667371-2-1, 1999.
"A Season of Service," Campus Compact, Brown University Box1975, Providence, RI, 02912, 2000.
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"Introduction to Service-Learning: Toolkit," Campus Compact,Brown University Box 1975, Providence, RI, 02912, available as of May, 2000.

Resources available via the CSU Service Learning Website:
"Assessing the Impact of Service Learning: A Workbook of Strategies and Methods." Description: A guide to assist faculty, students, institutional leaders, and community partners in understanding and assessing the impact of community service learning.

"Community Service: The art of volunteering and service learning ," Description: Excellent undergraduate textbook for students in a service learning course. Chapters cover the basics: volunteering, orientation to the agency, volunteer behavior, training, agency practices, supervision, learning contract, journaling, interviewing clients, managing time and stress, and team spirit. Each chapter includes case scenarios for group discussion.
"Educating Students to Make a Difference," Description: This book covers a range of issues related to service learning, addressing the "who," "why," and "so what" of service-learning experiences. It provides information that will aid in the development of service-learning programs and courses, and shows you how incorporating student service objectives into your curriculum can improve your students' self-esteem and school involvement, as well as alleviate depression and problem behavior.
"Guidebook: Planning and Evaluating Quality Outreach" (Revised 1996). Description: This 52-page guidebook contains three sections: 1) Unit Planning and Evaluation, 2) Individual Faculty Planning and Evaluation and 3) Project Evaluation. A matrix describes dimensions of quality outreach: significance, context, scholarship and impact. An appendix includes



Health Education Quarterly (SOPHE)
Journal of School Health (ASHA)
The Journal of Health Education (AAHE)
The Health Educator (ESG)
The Journal of Eta Sigma Gamma
American Journal of Public Health (APHA)
The International Journal of Health Edu.
American Journal of Health Promotion (AAHP)
Journal of College Health (ACHA)
Health Values —-
International Quarterly of Community Health Edu. —-

School: California State University, San Bernardino
Professor: Richard M. Eberst, Ph.D., CHES, FASHA